An Open Label, Single-arm, Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab (MK-3475) Before Cystectomy for Patients With Muscle-invasive Urothelial Bladder Cancer.
Condition: Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma
- Drug: Pembrolizumab (MK-3475)
Purpose: Patients with T2-T4a N0 urothelial bladder carcinoma (UBC) with residual disease after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB, surgical opinion, cystoscopy or radiological presence) will receive 3 cycles of pembrolizumab (MK-3475) at the dose of 200mg 3 weekly prior to surgery (radical cystectomy). Cystectomy will be planned to be done within 3 weeks of the last dose (accounting for a total of 9 weeks). Computed tomography (CT) scan and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT scan will be done during screening and before surgery. After cystectomy, patients with the evidence of pathologic stage T3-4 (pT3-4) and/or pathologically node-positive disease will be managed according to local guidelines. Further anti programmed-death (PD)-1 or anti PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1) therapy will not be given post-operatively. PD-L1 status will be centralized and assessed on TURB specimen using an anti-PD-L1 antibody (Ab) and a prototype immunohistochemical (IHC) assay. PD-L1 positivity will be defined as any staining in the stroma or in ≥1% of tumor cells. Pathologic complete response (pCR) is the primary endpoint. All patients enrolled who receive at least 1 cycle of study drug will be includes in the intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis. The alternative hypothesis (H1) is pCR ≥20% and null hypothesis (H0) pCR≤10%. A 2-stage design will be used to estimate the number of pts required. Out of 90 pts overall, with the first stage of 49 pts, ≥6 pCR will be required in the first stage, and ≥13 pCR in the whole study population (80% power and a 2-sided test of significance at the 10% level). Correlative research on tissue/blood samples will include immune-cell profiling in tumor and blood during Pembrolizumab, cytokine assessment, and molecular profiling of tumor samples.
Study Type: Interventional
Clinical Trials Identifier NCT 8-digits: NCT02736266
Sponsor: Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano
Primary Outcome Measures:
- Measure: Pathologic complete response
- Time Frame: At the time of radical cystectomy (within 9 weeks of the first dose of pembrolizumab)
- Safety Issue:
Secondary Outcome Measures:
- Measure: Adverse events
- Time Frame: Up to 2 years
- Safety Issue:
- Measure: Percentage of treatment-related delay in surgery
- Time Frame: Starting at week 9
- Safety Issue:
- Measure: Frequency of treatment-related adverse events
- Time Frame: Up to 1 year
- Safety Issue:
Estimated Enrollment: 90
Study Start Date: February 27, 2017
Phase: Phase 2
- Age: minimum 18 Years maximum N/A
- Gender: All
- Willing and able to provide written informed consent.
- Ability to comply with the protocol.
- Age ≥ 18 years.
- Histopathologically confirmed transitional cell carcinoma. Patients with mixed histologies are required to have a dominant (i.e. 50% at least) transitional cell pattern.
- Fit and planned for cystectomy (according to local guidelines).
- Clinical stage T2-T4a N0 M0 disease by CT (or MRI) + PET/CT (within 4 weeks of randomization by RECIST v1.1).
- Residual disease after TURB (surgical opinion, cystoscopy or radiological presence).
- Representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor specimens (blocks preferred) or at least 15 unstained slides, with an associated pathology report, for testing at the study sponsor site and determined to be evaluable for tumor PD-L1 expression prior to study enrolment; patients with fewer than 15 unstained slides available at baseline (but no fewer than 10) may be eligible following discussion with Merck representatives.
- Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status of 0 or
- Adequate hematologic and end-organ function tests.
- Patients taking regular oral steroids, above the allowed limit of 10mg/day methylprednisolone or analogues, for any reason. Patients must not have had steroids for 28 days prior to study entry.
- Previously intravenous chemotherapy bladder cancer. Patients who have previously had radiotherapy or concurrent chemo-radiation would be eligible.
- Malignancies other than UBC within 5 years prior to Cycle 1, Day 1, with the exception of those with a negligible risk of metastasis or death and treated with expected curative outcome (such as adequately treated carcinoma in situ of the cervix, basal or squamous cell skin cancer, or ductal carcinoma in situ treated surgically with curative intent) or localized prostate cancer treated with curative intent and absence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse or incidental prostate cancer (Gleason score ≤ 3 + 4 and PSA < 10 ng/mL undergoing active surveillance and treatment naive).
- Evidence of measurable nodal or metastatic disease.
- Evidence of significant uncontrolled concomitant disease that could affect compliance with the protocol or interpretation of results, including significant liver disease (such as cirrhosis, uncontrolled major seizure disorder, or superior vena cava syndrome).
- Pregnant female patients. All female patients of childbearing potential with a positive pregnancy test within 2 weeks prior to the first dose of study treatment will be excluded from the study.
- Significant cardiovascular disease, such as New York Heart Association cardiac disease (Class II or greater), myocardial infarction within 3 months prior to enrolment, unstable arrhythmias, or unstable angina.
- Severe infections within 4 weeks prior to enrolment in the study including but not limited to hospitalization for complications of infection, bacteraemia, or severe pneumonia.
- Major surgical procedure within 4 weeks prior to enrolment or anticipation of need for a major surgical procedure during the course of the study other than for diagnosis.
- History of severe allergic, anaphylactic, or other hypersensitivity reactions to chimeric or humanized antibodies or fusion proteins
- Known hypersensitivity or allergy to biopharmaceuticals produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells or any component of the pembrolizumab formulation
- History of autoimmune disease including but not limited to myasthenia gravis, myositis, autoimmune hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, vascular thrombosis associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Sjögren's syndrome, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, vasculitis, or glomerulonephritis.
- Patients with a history of autoimmune-related hypothyroidism, unless on a stable dose of thyroid-replacement hormone.
- Patients with uncontrolled Type 1 diabetes mellitus
- Uncontrolled hypercalcemia
- Patients with prior allogeneic stem cell or solid organ transplantation.
- History of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
- Positive test for HIV.
- Patients with active hepatitis infection
- Patients with active tuberculosis.
- Prior treatment with anti−programmed death−1 (PD-1), or anti−PD-L1 therapeutic antibody or pathway-targeting agents.
- Administration of a live, attenuated vaccine within 4 weeks prior to enrolment or anticipation that such a live, attenuated vaccine will be required during the study
- Treatment with any other investigational agent or participation in another clinical trial with therapeutic intent within 28 days prior to enrolment
- History of severe immune-related adverse effects from anti−CTLA-4 (CTCAE Grade 3 and 4).
- Treatment with systemic immunostimulatory agents within 4 weeks or five half-lives of the drug, whichever is shorter, prior to enrolment.
- Andrea Necchi, MD
- Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori
- Milano Mi 20133 Italy
View trial on ClinicalTrials.gov