PURPOSE: We evaluated whether stress levels in children and parents during radiological evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection are really lower using the top-down approach, where 99mtechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy is used initially, than the bottom-up approach, where voiding cystourethrography is initially performed and repeated examinations are easier for all.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 120 children 3 to 8 years old. Pain ratings were obtained using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised, and conversation during the procedure was evaluated using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised by 2 independent observers. To evaluate parental anxiety, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form was also completed. Following a documented febrile urinary tract infection children were randomized to the top-down or bottom-up group. A third group of 44 children undergoing repeat voiding cystourethrography and their parents were also evaluated.
RESULTS: Child ratings of pain using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised were not significantly different between the top-down group following 99mtechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy (2.99 on a scale of 10) and the bottom-up group following voiding cystourethrography (3.21). Also the Faces Pain Scale-Revised was not significantly different in the repeat voiding cystourethrography group (3.35). On the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised there was negative correlation between child coping and child distress, as well as rate of child distress and adult coping promoting behavior. Parental state anxiety scores were significantly less in the top-down and repeat voiding cystourethrography groups than in the bottom-up group.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the top-down approach and repeat voiding cystourethrography cause less anxiety for caregivers, these values do not correlate to pain scale in children. This finding might be due to lack of appropriate evaluation tools of pediatric pain and anxiety. However, the theory that the top-down approach is less invasive, and thus less stressful, requires further research. The Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised data indicate that influences in adult-child interaction are bidirectional.
Telli O, Mermerkaya M, Hajiyev P, Aydogdu O, Afandiyev F, Suer E, Soygur T, Burgu B. Are you the author?
Department of Pediatric Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; Department of Urology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey; Urology Clinic, Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.
Reference: J Urol. 2015 Mar;193(3):958-62.