This study was conducted to identify potential risk factors for permanent clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and incontinence in patients with lipomyelomeningocele (LMMC) and evaluate how LMMC affects bladder function prognosis, measured by urodynamic (UD) score.
This retrospective study analyzed the electronic health records of patients who underwent primary neurosurgical repair for LMMC at a single tertiary referral center between January 2012 and December 2016 and were followed at least 3 years after surgery. Data regarding bladder function were obtained from medical records for multiple time points, including before surgery, after surgery but before hospital discharge, 3 months after surgery, and at outpatient visits during follow-up.
This study enrolled 120 patients. At a mean follow-up of 62.6 ± 13.9 months after primary neurosurgical LMMC repair, 22 (18.3%) patients continued to require CIC for bladder emptying, only 7 (31.8%) of whom maintained bladder continence. A multivariate logistic regression model identified age at the time of surgery and the type of LMMC as significant presurgical prognostic risk factors for permanent CIC. In addition, postoperative urinary retention and a UD score greater than or equal to 5 measured 3 months after surgery were identified as significant postsurgical risk factors for permanent CIC and urinary incontinence. A linear mixed model adjusted for age at the time of surgery showed that patients with a transitional or chaotic LMMC type were more likely to experience gradual bladder function decline than patients with other LMMC types.
This study identified both presurgical (age at the time of surgery, LMMC type) and postsurgical (postoperative urinary retention, UD score greater than or equal to 5 at 3 months postsurgery) risk factors for permanent CIC and urinary incontinence. In addition, LMMC type was identified as a prognostic risk factor for bladder function decline. These results will enhance the current understanding of bladder function outcomes in patients who undergo surgical treatment for LMMC.
Neurourology and urodynamics. 2022 Oct 19 [Epub ahead of print]
Yoonhye Ji, Sang Woon Kim, Sang Won Han, Yong Seung Lee
Pediatric Bladder-Urethra Rehabilitation Clinic, Department of Pediatric Urology, Severance Children's Hospital, Yonsei University Healthcare System, Seoul, Republic of Korea., Department of Urology and Urological Science Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.