Urinary catheter use in patients with hip fracture: Are current guidelines appropriate? A retrospective review.

Guidelines for urinary catheterization in patients with hip fracture recommend limiting catheter use and using intermittent catheterization preferentially to avoid complications such as urinary tract infection (UTI) and postoperative urinary retention (POUR). We aimed to compare current practices to clinical guidelines, describe the incidence of POUR and UTI, and determine factors that increase the risk of these complications.

We retrospectively reviewed the charts of patients with hip fracture who presented to a single large tertiary care centre in southeastern Ontario between November 2015 and October 2017. Data collected included comorbidities, catheter use and length of stay. We compared catheter use to guidelines, and investigated the incidence of and risk factors for POUR and UTI.

We reviewed the charts of 583 patients, of whom 450 (77.2%) were treated with a catheter, primarily indwelling (416 [92.4%]). Postoperative urinary retention developed in 98 patients (16.8%); however, it did not affect length of stay (p = 0.2). Patients with indwelling catheters for more than 24 hours after surgery had a higher incidence of POUR than those who had their catheter removed before 24 hours (65/330 [19.7%] v. 10/98 [10.2%]) (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-4.38). A UTI developed postoperatively in 62 patients (10.6%). Catheter use was associated with a 6.6-fold increased risk of UTI (OR 6.6, 95% CI 2.03-21.4). Patients with indwelling catheters did not have a significantly higher incidence of UTI than those with intermittent catheterization (57/416 [13.7%] v. 2/34 [5.9%]) (p = 0.2). Patients who developed a UTI had significantly longer catheter use than patients who did not (p < 0.002).

Indwelling catheters were used frequently, which suggests low compliance with clinical guidelines. Longer duration of catheter use led to higher rates of UTI and POUR. Further investigation of the reasons for the common use of indwelling rather than intermittent catheterization is needed.

Canadian journal of surgery. Journal canadien de chirurgie. 2021 Nov 25*** epublish ***

Sruthi Thomas, Nicole Harris, Johanna Dobransky, George Grammatopoulos, Kathleen Gartke, Allan Liew, Steven Papp

From the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont., From the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ottawa, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ont. .

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