In utero myelomeningocele (MMC) repair has resulted in significant decrease in need for shunt-dependent hydrocephalus, however its impact on bladder function remains less clear. Neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) due to MMC can be addressed with combination of clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) and anticholinergic (AC) therapy to minimize its effect on bladder function and upper urinary tract. The aim of this study was to compare the risk of postnatal AC utilization for in patients that underwent either postnatal or in utero MMC repair related to neurogenic bladder (NGB) management. We hypothesized that postnatal MMC repair would be associated with increased risk of postnatal AC utilization compared to in utero MMC repair.
All newborns with MMC in our hospital undergo prospective surveillance radiographic and urodynamic testing as part of institutional MMC protocol. Those MMC patients born between 2013 and 2018 at our institution, who underwent in utero or postnatal MMC repair were retrospectively analyzed. We identified postnatal AC utilization from electronic medical records and recorded indications for AC therapy according to the urodynamic, radiographic and clinical findings related to NGB management.
97 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 56 patients underwent a postnatal and 41 an in utero repair. Median follow-up for the in utero and postnatal MMC repair groups was the same at 37 months (p = 0.53). More newborns from the postnatal group were discharged from birth hospital performing CIC (91.1% vs. 58.5%, p < 0.0001), however upon last follow up no difference existed between the groups on use of CIC (83.9% postnatal group % vs. 82.9% in utero group, p = 0.78). At last follow up, postnatal AC utilization was observed in 75% of postnatal MMC group compared to 78.1% of the in utero MMC repair group, p = 0.81 (Figure). The median time to AC utilization was 6.9 months and 8.8 months in the in utero and postnatal groups, respectively (p = 0.28).
We observed no reduction in risk of AC utilization with in utero repair which refuted the hypothesis of our study. Indications for AC utilization were urodynamic abnormalities such as NDO (81.3% in utero vs. 81% postnatal) or impaired bladder compliance (53.1% in utero vs. 64.3% postnatal).
We found no difference in risk of postnatal AC utilization between in utero or postnatal MMC repair. CIC rates were higher at birth hospital discharge in the postnatal repair group, however at last follow up CIC rates did not differ between groups.
Journal of pediatric urology. 2021 May 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Laura Zaccaria, Michael Daugherty, Campbell Grant, Andrew C Strine, Pramod P Reddy, W Robert DeFoor, Eugene Minevich, Foong-Yen Lim, Brian A VanderBrink
From the Division of Pediatric Urology and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, USA., From the Division of Pediatric Urology and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, USA. Electronic address: .