Vaginoplasty Articles


  • Gender-Affirming Surgery: Current Concepts.

    Gender-affirming surgeries (GASs), previously known as gender reassignment surgeries, are surgical procedures born from plastic and reconstructive surgery, colorectal surgery, urology, and gynecology.

    Published November 11, 2018
  • Laparoscopic Intestinal Vaginoplasty in Transgender Women: An Update on Surgical Indications, Operative Technique, Perioperative Care, and Short- and Long-Term Postoperative Issues.

    "Surgical (re)construction of a vagina (vaginoplasty) is performed in biological women with congenital or postablative vaginal absence and in transgender women. Penile inversion vaginoplasty is the gold surgical standard for genital Gender Affirmation Surgery in transgender women.

    Published October 13, 2019
  • Management of Vaginoplasty and Phalloplasty Complications.

    As more transgender patients undergo gender-affirming genital reconstructive surgery, such as vaginoplasty and phalloplasty, it is imperative for health care providers, including urologists, to understand the new anatomy and most common complications to diagnose and treat patients effectively.

    Published October 20, 2019
  • Overview of surgical techniques in gender-affirming genital surgery.

    Gender related genitourinary surgeries are vitally important in the management of gender dysphoria. Vaginoplasty, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty and their associated surgeries help patients achieve their main goal of aligning their body and mind.

    Published August 11, 2019
  • Penile Inversion Vaginoplasty Technique.

    Penile inversion vaginoplasty is a technique of gender-affirming genital surgery that uses primarily genital skin to construct the vulva and neovagina for patients assigned male sex at birth. This article presents present the authors' techniques and other contemporary techniques for this surgery, with particular attention to neovaginal canal construction, neoclitoral construction, and urethroplasty.

    Published October 20, 2019
  • Reconstructive Management Pearls for the Transgender Patient.

    A growing number of transgender patients are seeking gender-affirming genital reconstructive surgery (GRS). These complex procedures have high complication rates. We describe common surgical pitfalls in GRS and approaches for minimizing complications.

    Published November 11, 2018
  • Vaginoplasty Modifications to Improve Vulvar Aesthetics.

    Improvements to vulvar aesthetics, particularly the clitoral complex and labia minora reconstruction, are difficult and remain the challenge of genital reconstructive surgeons. Various modifications of penile inversion technique have been introduced to improve vulvar aesthetics in recent years.

    Published November 17, 2019