Gender-affirming surgeries (GASs), previously known as gender reassignment surgeries, are surgical procedures born from plastic and reconstructive surgery, colorectal surgery, urology, and gynecology.
"Surgical (re)construction of a vagina (vaginoplasty) is performed in biological women with congenital or postablative vaginal absence and in transgender women. Penile inversion vaginoplasty is the gold surgical standard for genital Gender Affirmation Surgery in transgender women.
As more transgender patients undergo gender-affirming genital reconstructive surgery, such as vaginoplasty and phalloplasty, it is imperative for health care providers, including urologists, to understand the new anatomy and most common complications to diagnose and treat patients effectively.
Gender related genitourinary surgeries are vitally important in the management of gender dysphoria. Vaginoplasty, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty and their associated surgeries help patients achieve their main goal of aligning their body and mind.
Penile inversion vaginoplasty is a technique of gender-affirming genital surgery that uses primarily genital skin to construct the vulva and neovagina for patients assigned male sex at birth. This article presents present the authors' techniques and other contemporary techniques for this surgery, with particular attention to neovaginal canal construction, neoclitoral construction, and urethroplasty.
A growing number of transgender patients are seeking gender-affirming genital reconstructive surgery (GRS). These complex procedures have high complication rates. We describe common surgical pitfalls in GRS and approaches for minimizing complications.
Improvements to vulvar aesthetics, particularly the clitoral complex and labia minora reconstruction, are difficult and remain the challenge of genital reconstructive surgeons. Various modifications of penile inversion technique have been introduced to improve vulvar aesthetics in recent years.
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