The regulation of immune responses occurring during Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy need to be better scrutinized in order to identify new targetable pathways for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer treatment.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers in the world. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells such as M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells (Tregs ) can contribute to cancer progression by suppressing the anti-tumor immune response.
mTOR inhibitors are frequently used in the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC). mTOR regulates cell growth, proliferation, angiogenesis, and survival, and additionally plays an important role in immune regulation.
For the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer several strategies are used among which the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. As mTOR plays an important role in the immune system, e.g., by controlling the expression of the transcription factor FoxP3 thereby regulating regulatory T cells (Tregs), it plays a key role in the balance between tolerance and inflammation.
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