Spain has been one of the most affected countries by the COVID-19 pandemic, being among the countries with worse numbers, including the death rate. However, most patients are asymptomatic, although they are very contagious.
BERKELEY, CA (UroToday.com) - CXp 11.2 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare RCC subtype and is defined by at least 6 different translocations involving the Xp 11.2 chromosome, resulting in gene fusion between the transcription factor that binds to IGHM enhancer 3 (TFE3) and papillary RCC (PRCC) or alveolar soft part sarcoma locus (ASPL; also known as ASPSCR1).
The application of microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers and therapy targets has been widely investigated in many kinds of cancers. Recent advantages of serum miRNAs open a new realm of possibilities for non-invasive diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer (BC).
This study presents a critical appraisal of previously published study data of miRNAs in blood, urine and exosomes as biomarkers of bladder cancer (BC). The evaluation included 39 articles published from the beginning of 2010 until September 2017 and searched in PubMed.
Immunotherapy for bladder cancer seems to have promising results. Here, we evaluated the association between messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels and possible prognostic value of the programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) immune checkpoint pathways during bladder carcinogenesis.
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