Adjuvant therapy for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains controversial. Of the four reported randomized controlled trials evaluating adjuvant vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition, only one met its primary endpoint.
Patients with high-risk renal cell carcinoma (RCC) experience high rates of recurrence despite definitive surgical resection. Recent trials of adjuvant tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy have provided conflicting efficacy results at the cost of significant adverse events.
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