The first-line therapy of metastatic bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma, UC) depends on whether a patient is cisplatin-fit or not. Cisplatin-fit patients should be treated with the standard chemotherapy protocol GC (gemcitabine/cisplatin) or alternatively MVAC (methotrexate/vinblastine/doxorubicin/cisplatin).
Great advances have been made for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma by the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI). Single-agent immunotherapy with CPIs has been approved for patients with metastatic or locally advanced inoperable urothelial carcinoma who have either progressed during or after platinum-based chemotherapy or who are cisplatin-ineligible.
The approval of the PD‑1 and PD-L1 (programmed cell death [ligand] 1) antibodies pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and atezolizumab has fundamentally changed the therapeutic landscape of locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
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