Addison's disease (AD) is the most common endocrine manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), but it remains a very rare complication of the syndrome. It is caused by adrenal venous thrombosis and consequent hemorrhagic infarction or by spontaneous (without thrombosis) adrenal hemorrhage, usually occurring after surgery or anticoagulant therapy.
The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) of the kidney plays an important role in blood pressure regulation by modulating Na+ reabsorption via the Na+-Cl- cotransporter (NCC). A diet containing high salt (NaCl) and low K+ activates NCC, thereby causing Na+ retention and a rise in blood pressure.
Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody against programmed cell death-1 receptor, is increasingly used in advanced cancers. While nivolumab use enhances cancer therapy, it is associated with increased immune-related adverse events.
Primary adrenal lymphoma (PAL) is a rare cause of adrenal insufficiency. More than 90% is of B-cell origin. The condition is bilateral in up to 75% of cases, with adrenal insufficiency in two of three patients.
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