Tags

Peyronie's disease

  • Penile Plication With or Without Degloving of the Penis Results in Similar Outcomes.

    Penile plication techniques with or without degloving offer a minimally invasive option for the treatment of penile curvature.

    To review the outcomes of penile plication surgery and patient satisfaction with and without degloving of the penis.

    Published July 28, 2017
  • Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Patients With Peyronie's Disease: Results of the PROPPER Study Demonstrates a Decrease in Patient-Reported Depression.

    Although there is a strong correlation between erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease (PD), there are limited data on the efficacy and satisfaction of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement in this population.

    Published April 15, 2018
  • Penile Reconstructive Surgery in Peyronie Disease: Challenges in Restoring Normal Penis Size, Shape, and Function.

    To provide an overview of current approaches to penile reconstructive surgery in Peyronie disease (PD), and to discuss the challenges in restoring normal penile size and function.

    A systematic literature search was conducted to identify the published literature relevant to PD and penile reconstructive surgery.

    Published April 7, 2018
  • Penile Sensory Changes After Plaque Incision and Grafting Surgery for Peyronie's Disease.

    Plaque incision and grafting (PIG) for Peyronie's disease (PD) is not devoid of complications such as erectile dysfunction and penile sensory changes.

    To define the rate and chronology of penile sensation loss after PIG surgery and to define predictors of such.

    Published September 10, 2018
  • Penile Size Restoration With Nondegloving Approach for Peyronie's Disease: Initial Experience.

    The sliding technique (ST), commonly done with a subcoronal circumcising incision with penile degloving, has been used to restore penile size in patients with severe Peyronie's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction, but with a potential risk of ischemic injury to the glans penis.

    Published September 13, 2018
  • Penile Stretching as a Treatment for Peyronie's Disease: A Review.

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a debilitating condition that affects a sizable number of men worldwide. Current treatment options consist of oral therapy, intralesional injections, and surgery. Penile stretching has been used as a treatment for PD, including penile traction therapy (PTT) and vacuum erection devices (VEDs), with numerous trials completed or underway.

    Published January 13, 2019
  • Peyronie's Disease

    History and Background:

    • The first description of Peyronie's disease is credited to Francois Gigot de la Peyronie in 1743.
    • No consensus exists with regard to the etiology, prevalence and treatment of the condition.  
    • Peyronie's disease is associated with Dupuytren disease. Dupuytren disease has a familial pattern known to be transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern. 
    • Thirty percent to 40% of men with Peyronie's disease will also have Dupuytren disease.

    Eitiology and Natual History:

    • Peyronie's disease presents as a variety of deformities of the penis. 
    • The symptomatic incidence has been estimated at 1%, but data indicates that the incidence is increasing and now can be estimated conservatively at 5% and some recent estimates are  8.9% to 13%.
    • Peyronie’s disease is defined by the presence of an inflammatory reaction and eventual fibrotic plaque development within the tunica albuginea or of the corpora cavernosa.
    • This plaque, which is palpable on physical examination in established cases, is associated with the common presenting symptoms of Peyronie’s disease, including pain with erection, curvature or deformity of the erect penis and erectile dysfunction (ED).
    • Plaque formation is thought to be the result of trauma, to the erect or semi-erect penis, which is propagated by aberrant would healing.
    • Reports of an association between Peyronie’s disease and Dupuytren’s contracture, plantar fascial contracture, tympanosclerosis, diabetes, urethral instrumentation, autoimmune disorders and as an inherited form of the disorder suggest that a multifactorial etiology is likely.
    • Disease development is described in two phases. 
      • The first phase is associated with painful erections and changing deformity of the penis. 
      • The second phase,is characterized by the disappearance of painful erections, if previously present, and a stability in the disease process.
    • Most patients do not require surgery. 
    • Patient's do require reassurance and education. 
    • Surgery for Peyronie's disease is considered palliation for the mechanical effects of the disease.
    • Peyronie's disease has been related to a number of conditions. The strongest relation is to Dupuytren disease.
    • The development of Peyronie's disease does seem to be related to the unique anatomy of the tunica albuginea and its relationship to the septal fibers.
    • Buckling trauma of the penis, usually occurring during intercourse, has been implicated in the development of Peyronie's disease. 
    • TGF-β has been found to be related to the disordered healing process that leads to the scarring of the Peyronie's plaque. 
    • Failure of downregulation of a number of “antifibrotic” factors has been implicated.

    Symptoms:

    • The presenting symptoms of Peyronie's disease include, in many patients, penile pain with erection; penile deformity, both flaccid and erect; shortening with and without an erection; plaque or indurated areas in the penis; and, in many patients, erectile dysfunction. 
    • On physical examination, virtually all patients have either a well-defined plaque or an area of induration that is palpable. 
    • The plaque is usually on the dorsal surface of the penis, intimately associated with the insertion of the septal fibers.
    • Spontaneous improvement in pain virtually always occurs as the inflammation resolves.

    Patient Evaluation:

    • Patients with Peyronie's disease present with a variety of deformities of the penis. 
    • Most have noted an indurated area in the penis that has been identified as the plaque. 
    • Many patients have noticed erectile dysfunction. 
    • All patients must be evaluated with a medical history, as well as a detailed psychosexual history. 
    • Approximately one third of the patients will develop dystrophic calcification in the plaque that can be demonstrated by ultrasonography or plain radiography. 
    • The place for MRI in the evaluation of Peyronie's plaque has not been defined, nor has the place for vascular testing been clearly defined. 
    • However, most urologists would agree that in patients who are to be operated on, vascular testing to stratify the vascular parameters of erectile function is a necessity. 
    • Once all of the data have been assembled, individualization with regard to the patient's requirements, findings, and assessment is imperative.

    Medical Management:

    • The efficacy of medical management of Peyronie's disease is difficult to determine because there are few RCT. 
    • Vitamin E has been used historically, and while supplementation has been studied for decades, and some success has been reported in older trials, those results have not been reproducible in RCT.
    • A combination of Vitamin E and colchicine has shown some promise in delaying progression of the condition.
    • Potassium aminobenzoate, in a small study, was found to reduce plaque size, not curvature, and thus in that study was found “efficacious.” However, the side effects make it difficult to tolerate.
    • A number of intralesional protocols have been proposed. 
    • The use of verapamil as an intralesional agent has been studied. A prospective study did show decrease in curvature in about 80% of the patients. 
    • Injections to plaques (scar tissue formed by the inflammation) with Verapamil may be effective in some patients, but a recent placebo controlled trial failed to show a significant improvement. 
    • So there are conflicting outcomes reported.
    • Interferon-alpha-2b has been proposed in recent publications.
    • Radiation therapy should be avoided. 
    • The vacuum erection device has not been adequately studied.
    • Penile traction has not been adequately studied.
    • The place of extracorporeal shockwave therapy has likewise not been adequately determined.

    The use of collagenase as an intralesional agent has been subjected to a number of double-blind placebo-controlled protocols, and, in all, efficacy was suggested. Collagenase is currently not available as an approved treatment and remains in development.  

    Surgery:

    • The consensus committee on Peyronie's disease at the World Health Organization Second International Consultation on Sexual Dysfunctions stated that the penile prosthesis is a reliable option for the older man with vascular impairment, erectile dysfunction, and acquired deformity of the penis.
    • It is not the only treatment of Peyronie's disease but rather a prudent treatment for the patient with significant erectile dysfunction in association with Peyronie's disease. 
    • Hydraulic prostheses are preferred, and those prostheses that have true controlled expansion cylinders have been shown to provide better results.

    References:

    • Brock G, Lue TF: Peyronie's disease, a modified treatment. Urology 1993; 42:300-304.
    • Brock G, Hsu GL, Nunes L, et al: The anatomy of the tunica albuginea in the normal penis and Peyronie's disease. J Urol 1997; 157:276-281.
    • Carson CC, Jordan GH, Gelbard MK: Peyronie's disease: new concepts in etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Contemp Urol 1999; 11:44-64.
    • Dibenedetti DB, Nguyen D, Zografos L, Ziemiecki R, Zhou X. Adva Urol 2011;282503.
    • Hellstrom WJ: History, epidemiology and clinical presentation of Peyronie's disease [review]. Int J Impot Res 2003; 15(Suppl.):S91-S92. S121-4.
    • Levine LA, Greenfield JM: Establishing a standardized evaluation of the man with Peyronie's disease [review]. Int J Impot Res 2003; 15(Suppl.):S103-S112.
    • Levine LA. Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction: Current understanding and future direction. Indian J Urol 2006;22:246-50.
    • Mulhull JP, Creech SD, Boorjian SA, et al: Subjective and objective analysis of the prevalence of peyronie's disease in a population of men presenting for prostate cancer screening. J Urol 2004; 171:2350 - 53.
    • Mynderse LA, Monga M (October 2002). "Oral therapy for Peyronie's disease". International Journal of Impotence Research 14 (5): 340–4.
    • Nyberg Jr LM, Bias WB, Hochbert MC, Walsh PC: Identification of an inherited form of Peyronie's disease with autosomal dominant inheritance and association with Dupuytren's contracture and histocompatibility B7 cross-reacting antigens. J Urol 1982; 128:48-51.
    • O’Brien K, Parker M, Guhring P, et al: Analysis of the natural history of Peyronie's disease [abstract 69]. J Sex Med 2004; 1(Suppl. 1):50.
    • Prieto Castro RM, Leva Vallejo ME, Regueiro Lopez JC, et al: Combined treatment with vitamin E and colchicine in the early stages of Peyronie's disease. BJU Int 2003; 91:522-524.
    • Riedl CR, Sternig P, Gallé G, et al. (October 2005). "Liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase for the treatment of Peyronie's disease: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind prospective clinical study". European Urology 48 (4): 656–61.
    • Trost LW, Gur S, Hellstrom WJ (2007). "Pharmacological Management of Peyronie's Disease". Drugs 67 (4): 527–45.
    Published October 1, 2014
  • Peyronie's disease and Dupuytren's contracture secondary to topical timolol.

    Topical beta-blockers are a proven and safe medication used in the treatment of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Local and systemic side effects are, however, well documented. Systemic side effects can include severe cardio-respiratory impairment, endocrine dysfunction, as well as headache and hyper-somnolence.

    Published February 12, 2018
  • Peyronie's disease and testosterone deficiency: Is there a link?

    Peyronie's disease (PD) and testosterone deficiency (TD) impact men at the same stage of life and can ultimately contribute to erectile dysfunction. There is speculation that low levels of testosterone (T) may predispose men to penile fibrosis; however, there is no published, up-to-date review summarizing the current evidence.

    Published March 17, 2019
  • Peyronie's disease: What's around the bend?

    INTRODUCTION - Peyronie's disease (PD) is a fibrotic diathesis of the tunica albuginea that results in penile plaque formation and penile deformity, negatively affecting sexual and psychosocial function of both patients and their partners.

    Published March 30, 2016
  • Phase I and phase II clinical trials for the treatment of male sexual dysfunction - A systematic review of the literature.

    Introduction - The prevalence of sexual dysfunctions has increased over the last decades; despite a number of available treatments for erectile dysfunction (ED), premature ejaculation (PE) and Peyronie's disease (PD), still several unmet therapeutic needs deserve to be fulfilled.

    Published July 9, 2018
  • Plaque calcification: An important predictor of collagenase clostridium histolyticum treatment outcomes for men with Peyronie's Disease.

    To compare outcomes of men with or without calcified plaques undergoing collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) injections for Peyronie's Disease (PD) and identify predictors of CCH success.

    From March 2014 through January 2017, data were prospectively collected on 192 patients who underwent 1-4 cycles of CCH for the treatment of PD.

    Published June 26, 2018
  • Plication for Severe Peyronie's Deformities Has Similar Long-Term Outcomes to Milder Cases.

    Penile plication (PP) for Peyronie's disease (PD) is an established treatment option for mild to moderate curvature, but scant data exist regarding its utility in severe deformities.

    To evaluate long-term outcomes among men undergoing PP for PD, comparing severe to mild/moderate penile deformities.

    Published September 29, 2018
  • Practical Computerized Solution for Incision and Grafting in Peyronie's Disease.

    INTRODUCTION - Penile curvature correction with plaque incision and graft (PIG) increases the risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) and is associated with mechanical and geometric abnormalities.

    AIMS - The aim of this study was to create and validate a new PIG technique using minimum graft area to correct simple or complex penile curvature with or without hourglass deformity, while avoiding mechanical and geometric abnormalities.

    Published January 26, 2016
  • Prospective study to evaluate the clinical outcome of intralesional interferon-α2b in the management of Peyronie's disease.

    Interferon (IFN)-α2b in Peyronie's disease (PD).

    This study aims to evaluate clinical efficacy of the IFN-α2b in both subjective and objective manner for the treatment of PD and compared with previously used intralesional verapamil in terms of cost-benefit analysis.

    Published May 6, 2018
  • Reduction in Peyronie's-like plaque size using a vacuum erection device in a rat model of Peyronie's disease via the TGF-β/SMAD signalling pathway.

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a fibrotic disorder of the tunica albuginea (TA). This study aimed to determine the therapeutic effects of a vacuum erection device (VED) in an animal model of PD and explore the possible mechanisms.

    Published July 1, 2018
  • Review of Management Options for Active-Phase Peyronie's Disease.

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a fibrotic disorder that leads to plaque formation in ∼3-9% of adult men. Connective tissue buildup results in plaque formation, penile curvature and shortening, and in some cases, pain.

    Published December 9, 2018
  • Review of Management Options for Patients With Atypical Peyronie's Disease.

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is a wound-healing disorder of the tunica albuginea often associated with penile deformity. Less commonly, patients with PD might display atypical presentations such as ventral curvature, hourglass deformity, significantly shortened penis, and/or multiplanar curvature.

    Published September 6, 2016
  • Role of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in management of Peyronie's disease: A preliminary report.

    Peyronie's Disease (PD) is a disease causing psycho social trauma to the patient. Multiple treatment options are available with variable results. Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a new insight into the non invasive modality of management.

    Published January 9, 2017
  • Safety Profile of Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Stratified by Degree of Penile Curvature in Patients with Peyronie's Disease.

    To examine the safety of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) in adult males with penile curvature deformity <30°. Collagenase clostridium histolyticum is indicated for treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) in adult males with palpable plaque and a penile curvature deformity ≥30° at start of therapy; however, during treatment, patients may receive CCH injections when penile curvature deformity is <30°.

    Published May 21, 2017
  • Satisfaction of patients with Peyronie's disease after plaque surgery and bovine pericardium graft.

    Plaque and bovine pericardium graft surgery is a useful tool for treating Peyronie's disease.

    To determine patient satisfaction following this operation.

    This was a retrospective, observational and descriptive study.

    Published August 2, 2016
  • Separating the Wheat From the Chaff: An Evaluation of Readability, Quality, and Accuracy of Online Health Information for Treatment of Peyronie's Disease.

    To characterize available information about Peyronie's disease online and evaluate its readability, quality, accuracy, and respective associations with HONcode certification and website category.

    The search term "Peyronie's disease" was queried on three major search engines (Google, Bing, Yahoo) and the first 50 search results on each search engine were assessed.

    Published May 7, 2018
  • Shockwave Therapy in the Treatment of Peyronie's Disease.

    Peyronie's disease is an acquired condition of the connective tissue of the penis that affects 0.5-20.3% of the male population and is marked by fibrotic plaques in the tunica albuginea. It can result in penile curvature/deviation, painful erections, and sexual dysfunction.

    Published March 31, 2019
  • Sildenafil 25 mg ODT + Collagenase Clostridium hystoliticum vs Collagenase Clostridium hystoliticum Alone for the Management of Peyronie's Disease: A Matched-Pair Comparison Analysis.

    The effectiveness of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors over the conservative management of Peyronie's disease (PD) has been widely questioned.

    To determine the role of sildenafil 25 mg film formulation twice a day (S25 b.

    Published October 6, 2018
  • Simvastatin and the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 prevent myofibroblast transformation in Peyronie's disease-derived fibroblasts via inhibition of YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation.

    To uncover the anti-myofibroblast (MFB) properties of Rho-kinase inhibitor (compound Y-27632) and simvastatin in an in vitro model of Peyronie's disease (PD), a sexually debilitating disease caused by an irreversible fibrotic plaque in the penile tunica albuginea (TA).

    Published March 10, 2019
  • Small Intestinal Submucosa Grafting for Peyronie's Disease: Outcomes and Patient Satisfaction.

    To evaluate surgical outcomes and complications and assess overall patient satisfaction after small intestinal submucosa (SIS) grafting for PD.

    Twenty-eight patients were treated with tunical incision and grafting with SIS.

    Published November 15, 2016
  • Sub-Coronal Inflatable Penile Prosthesis Placement With Modified No-Touch Technique: A Step-by-Step Approach With Outcomes.

    INTRODUCTION = The surgical treatment of disorders of male sexual function requires specific exposure to correct the underlying problem safely and efficiently. Currently, sub-coronal exposure is used for treatment of phimosis, Peyronie's disease plaque (PDP), and semirigid penile prosthesis insertion.

    Published February 23, 2016
  • Successful Treatment of Residual Curvature in Peyronie's Disease in Men Previously Treated with Intralesional Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum.

    To determine the success and feasibility of surgically correcting residual curvature after intralesional collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) for the treatment of Peyronie's disease.

    We performed a retrospective analysis of patients who had intralesional CCH treatment for (PD) and who subsequently underwent penile plication (PP), plaque incision and grafting (PIG), or inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) placement.

    Published September 10, 2017
  • Supporting the role of penile trauma and micro-trauma in the etiology of Peyronie's disease. Prospective observational study using the electronic microscope to examine two types of plaques.

    The etiopathogenesis of Peyronie's disease (PD) remains not clearly understood. The most accepted theory attributes the histological lesions of PD to the effects of trauma to the corpora cavernosum of the penis.

    Published April 7, 2019
  • Surgical Outcomes of Plaque Excision and Grafting and Supplemental Tunica Albuginea Plication for Treatment of Peyronie's Disease With Severe Compound Curvature.

    There are limited data in the literature that describe the management of Peyronie's disease (PD) with severe compound curvature, which often requires additional straightening procedures after plaque excision and grafting (PEG) to achieve functional penile straightening (<20 degrees).

    Published June 26, 2018
  • Surgical Technique for Complex Cases of Peyronie's Disease With Implantation of Penile Prosthesis, Multiple Corporeal Incisions, and Grafting With Collagen Fleece.

    Patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction (ED) concomitant with shortening or other malformations benefit from prosthesis implantation and penile lengthening procedures.

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of a multi-incisional technique with penile prosthesis implantation with multiple corporeal incisions and collagen grafting for the surgical management of complex cases of PD with ED and severe penile shortening.

    Published February 18, 2019
  • Survey of patient and partner satisfaction following collagenase Clostridium histolyticum treatment for Peyronie's disease.

    Intralesional injection of collagenase Clostridium histolyticum (CCH) is a minimally invasive, Food and Drug Administration-approved, effective treatment for Peyronie's disease (PD). To assess the satisfaction of patients and their female sexual partners (FSP) following CCH therapy for PD, we conducted a retrospective review of the records of all patients treated with CCH for PD between 04/2014 and 03/2016.

    Published February 14, 2017
  • Tadalafil once daily and intralesional verapamil injection: A new therapeutic direction in Peyronie's disease.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the combination of intralesional verapamil injection (IVI) therapy with and tadalafil in men affected by Peyronie's disease (PD).

    In this study, 59 patients diagnosed with PD, were divided into three groups.

    Published September 21, 2015
  • Ten-year experience with multimodal treatment for acute phase Peyronie's disease: A real life clinical report.

    To present our experience with multimodal therapy for Peyronie's disease.

    Retrospective data were collected since 2008 to 2017. The following features were evaluated at baseline and after treatment: age, duration of disease, erectile function, erected penile curvature, and stretched penile length.

    Published February 3, 2019
  • The comparison of an acellular matrix graft with an autologous venous graft in the surgical treatment of Peyronie's disease.

    The aim of this study was to evaluate acellular porcine pericardium (APP) and compared the results with those obtained from venous grafts in the surgical management of Peyronie's disease (PD). An APP (Group 1) and an autologous saphenous vein graft (Group 2) were used in 27 and 26 patients, respectively for Peyronie's correction.

    Published October 30, 2018
  • The effect of adjunct mechanical traction on penile length in men undergoing primary treatment for Peyronie's Disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    To accurately characterize the effect of penile traction therapy (PTT) on stretched penile length (SPL) after primary treatment for men with PD.

    A systematic search was performed for studies that evaluated the correction of PD using penile traction as secondary treatment published through January 2018.

    Published August 20, 2018
  • The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Peyronie's Disease in Rat Model.

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of intratunical injection of platelet rich plasma (PRP) for the treatment of Peyronie's disease (PD) in a rat model.

    Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats (300-350 g) were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham, PD, PD + PRP, and PRP.

    Published October 15, 2018
  • The Impact of Clostridium Histolyticum Collagenase on the Prevalence and Management of Peyronie's Disease in the United States.

    We evaluated the impact of collagenase clostridium histolyticum (CCH) on rates of diagnosis, treatment, and corporal rupture in Peyronie's disease (PD). We examined the impact of CCH on cost of PD treatment.

    Published December 30, 2018
  • The PICS Technique: A Novel Approach for Residual Curvature Correction During Penile Prosthesis Implantation in Patients With Severe Peyronie's Disease Using the Collagen Fleece TachoSil.

    Correction of residual curvature during inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) implantation in patients with Peyronie's disease (PD) by plaque incision and grafting is a common approach.

    To present a novel technique for residual curvature correction during IPP implantation using collagen fleece (TachoSil, Baxter Healthcare Corp, Deerfield, IL, USA).

    Published January 14, 2018
  • The use of penile traction therapy in the management of Peyronie's disease: current evidence and future prospects.

    Peyronie's disease is a disorder of abnormal and dysregulated wound healing leading to scar formation in the tunica albuginea of the penis. Penile traction therapy has emerged as an attractive therapeutic option for men with Peyronie's disease in both the acute and chronic phases.

    Published April 14, 2019
  • The Use of Stromal Vascular Fraction in the Treatment of Male Sexual Dysfunction: A Review of Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

    Stem cell therapy using stromal vascular fraction (SVF) is a promising treatment modality. SVF is comprised of a mixture of adipose-derived stem cells, endothelial precursor cells, and immune modulatory cells that act synergistically to facilitate angiogenesis and epithelial cell differentiation.

    Published July 9, 2018
  • Three-Dimensional Photography for Quantitative Assessment of Penile Volume-Loss Deformities in Peyronie's Disease.

    Non-curvature penile deformities are prevalent and bothersome manifestations of Peyronie's disease (PD), but the quantitative metrics that are currently used to describe these deformities are inadequate and non-standardized, presenting a barrier to clinical research and patient care.

    Published May 8, 2017
  • Twenty Years of Plaque Incision and Grafting for Peyronie's Disease: A Review of Literature.

    Plaque incision and grafting (PIG) is indicated for men with complex or severe penile curvature and, despite a multitude of incision types and grafting materials having been used, no individual technique has proven superiority.

    Published March 24, 2019
  • Use of A Non Cross-Linked Xenograft (Xenform®) in Surgical Treatment of Peyronie's Disease.

    To evaluate the effectiveness in Peyronie's Disease surgical treatment using Xenform®, a non cross-linked graft derived from dermal bovine tissue, to close the defect obtained after plaque incision, without penile prosthesis implant.

    Published June 7, 2016
  • Variation in Penile Hemodynamics by Anatomic Location of Cavernosal Artery Imaging in Penile Duplex Doppler Ultrasound.

    INTRODUCTION: Standard operating procedures (SOP) for penile duplex Doppler ultrasound (PDDU) were published in 2013 to promote uniform vascular assessment for erectile dysfunction (ED). However, SOPs do not specify a standard anatomic location for cavernosal artery (CA)imaging.

    Published August 27, 2015
  • Verteporfin as a Medical Treatment in Peyronie's Disease.

    In Europe and the United States, verteporfin (Visudyne; VP) is registered and used in treating macular degeneration. Research showed that VP decreased expression of fibrotic genes in fibroblasts collected from nodules of patients suffering from Dupuytren's disease, plausibly by de-activating transcription in the Yes Activated Protein (YAP) pathway.

    Published October 6, 2018

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