Immunotherapies targeting the PD-1 checkpoint pathway have recently gained regulatory approval in numerous cancer types. With the widespread use of immune checkpoint therapies, varying patterns of responses and immune-related adverse events are being observed.
Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor-related hematologic toxicities are a category of rare but clinically serious and potentially life-threatening adverse events; however, little is known about their risks across different treatment regimens and tumor types.
Anti-PD-1 therapy is increasingly used in various advanced malignancies. Patients with baseline organ dysfunction are largely excluded from clinical trials. Therefore it is unclear whether anti-PD-1 therapy is safe or effective in this setting.
No data are available on the surgical safety of radical cystectomy (RC) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) after the administration of checkpoint inhibitors. We aimed at reporting the first prospective rigorous assessment of perioperative outcomes after RC and extended PLND following neoadjuvant pembrolizumab in a contemporary cohort of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) enrolled in the PURE-01 trial.
AIMS: Pembrolizumab demonstrated significantly prolonged overall survival (OS) vs. chemotherapy in the Phase III KEYNOTE-045 trial, and is approved in the US for the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who progressed after platinum-based chemotherapy.
Introduction: In December 2019, the US Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to the novel nectin-4-targeting antibody-drug conjugate, enfortumab vedotin, for the treatment of platinum-refractory and immune checkpoint blockade-refractory locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma.
Patients with predominant variant histology (VH) of bladder tumors, defined as involving >50 % of the tumor specimens, are typically excluded from clinical trials, and for these patients, the efficacy of standard chemotherapy is limited.
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