The phase 3 SPARTAN study evaluated apalutamide versus placebo in patients with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC) and prostate-specific antigen doubling time of ≤10 mo. At primary analysis, apalutamide improved median metastasis-free survival (MFS) by 2 yr and overall survival (OS) data were immature.
Introduction Enzalutamide is the first characterized second-generation nonsteroidal androgen receptor inhibitor (ARi). Its efficacy has been established in several clinical trials evaluating its role in different settings of prostate cancer.
Over the last 10 years, a number of new agents approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have led to a significant improvement in overall survival. The addition of new agents to androgen deprivation therapy has also allowed a paradigmatic change in the treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer by improving overall survival in comparison with androgen deprivation therapy alone.
Lately the development of 3 novel second-generation androgen receptor antagonists (enzalutamide, apalutamide, and darolutamide) chanced the treatment landscape of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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