Laparoscopic Surgery Articles


  • [Effect of surgical approach on radical nephrectomy outcomes: Comparative study between open and laparoscopic nephrectomy.]

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of laparoscopy in patients with renal cancer treated with radical nephrectomy in terms of surgical time, hospital stay, postoperative complications and survival.

    Published April 6, 2020
  • 5-Year Longitudinal Followup after Retropubic and Transobturator Mid Urethral Slings

    Purpose: Few studies have characterized longer-term outcomes after retropubic and transobturator mid urethral slings.

    Published January 26, 2017
  • A Combination of Findings Obtained from Pre- and Postoperative Imaging Predict Recovery of Urinary Continence After Non-nerve-sparing Laparoscopic Radical Prostatectomy.

    The aim of the study was to identify the reliable predictor for early recovery of urinary continence (UC) after non-nerve-sparing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (NNS-LRP) according to the findings of pre- and postoperative imaging.

    Published September 17, 2018
  • Beyond the Abstract - Athermal division and selective suture ligation of the dorsal vein complex during robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy: Description of technique and outcomes, by Keith J. Kowalczyk, MD and Jim C. Hu, MD, MPH

    BERKELEY, CA ( - The precise etiology of post-prostatectomy incontinence remains unknown and is likely multifactorial.

    Published March 18, 2011
  • Beyond the Abstract - Comparison of the learning curve and outcomes of robotic assisted pediatric pyeloplasty, by Mathew D. Sorensen, MD, MS, and Thomas S. Lendvay, MD

    BERKELEY, CA ( - Theodore P. Wright was an aeronautical engineer who first described the learning curve in 1936 as it related to airplane manufacturing.1

    Published October 17, 2011
  • Beyond the Abstract - Cost-analysis comparison of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RC) vs open RC, by Richard Lee, MD, MBA

    BERKELEY, CA ( - With ever rising healthcare costs, it has become prudent to evaluate all new technologies not just from a clinical standpoint, but also a financial one.

    Published February 6, 2012
  • Beyond the Abstract - Effects of pelvic organ prolapse repair on urinary symptoms: A comparative study between the laparoscopic and vaginal approach, by Rajeev Ramanah,MD

    BERKELEY, CA ( - Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) surgery has a positive impact on most urinary symptoms with improvement in both Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI) and Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI)scores after surgery.

    Published January 13, 2012
  • Beyond the Abstract - Laparoscopic promontofixation for pelvic organ prolapse: A 10-year single center experience in a series of 501 patients, by Athanasios Papatsoris MD, MSc, PhD, FEBU, FES

    BERKELEY, CA ( - Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs in up to 50% of parous women and the lifetime risk of requiring surgery for POP is more than 10%.

    Published January 11, 2012
  • Beyond the Abstract - Reverse stage shift at a tertiary care center: Escalating risk in men undergoing radical prostatectomy, by Vincent P. Laudone, MD and Jonathan Silberstein, MD

    BERKELEY, CA ( - Determining the optimal role of surgical intervention in the treatment of prostate cancer has been a major focus at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) for many years.

    Published September 6, 2011
  • Beyond the Abstract - Robot-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection in an adolescent population, by Nicholas G. Cost, MD, et al.

    BERKELEY, CA ( - We have recently published an article on our experience with robotic-assisted laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) in adolescents with testicular cancer.1

    Published April 2, 2012
  • Beyond the Abstract - Robot-assisted radical prostatectomy in patients with previous renal transplantation , by D. Duane Baldwin, MD., Et Al.

    BERKELEY, CA ( - It is a commonly held notion that patients with end stage renal disease and prostate cancer are not considered surgical candidates for prostate removal due to associated comorbidities.

    Published November 22, 2011
  • Beyond the Abstract - Robotic radical cystectomy: Where are we today, where will we be tomorrow? by Kyle A. Richards, et al.

    BERKELEY, CA ( - This article aims to review and summarize the literature and data in regards to robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC).

    Published March 24, 2011
  • Chronic urinary retention after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder in women: Risk factors and relation to time.

    To investigate the long-term cumulative incidence of chronic urinary retention (CUR) after radical cystectomy (RC) and orthotopic neobladder (ONB) in women and the possible risk factors.

    We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively evaluated cohort of women for whom RC and ONB were performed.

    Published September 7, 2017
  • Comparative Efficacy of Laparoscopic Versus Robotic Adrenalectomy for Adrenal Malignancy.

    To evaluate whether the technical advantages of robotic-assisted surgery over standard laparoscopy, which are well established for complex renal surgery, lead to variable surgical outcomes between laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA) and robotic adrenalectomy (RA).

    Published September 14, 2018
  • Comparison between laparoscopic and open prostatectomy: Postoperative urinary continence analysis.

    There are very few articles comparing open radical prostatectomy (ORP) vs. laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and their functional results or urinary continence (UC), which is one of the most important objectives to pursue after oncological results.

    Published March 20, 2020
  • En bloc retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy with inferior vena cava thrombectomy for renal cell carcinoma with level 0 to II venous tumor thrombus: A single-center experience.

    The surgical treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with venous tumor thrombus (VTT) is challenging. In the current study, the authors have reported their surgical outcomes and experience with en bloc retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) with inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombectomy for patients with RCC with level 0 to II VTT.

    Published April 22, 2020
  • Feasibility of Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy in Elderly Patients: A Comparative Analysis of Clinical Outcomes in a Single Institution.

    Laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC) is a standard surgical treatment for muscle-invasive bladder cancer and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. LRC is a less invasive modality than conventional open surgery.

    Published November 3, 2019
  • Incidental detection of asymptomatic migration of Hem-o-lok clip into the bladder after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Hem-o-lok clips have been widely used in laparoscopic or robot-assisted surgery. We report a case of an incidentally discovered Hem-o-lok migration into the bladder after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    Published June 18, 2017
  • Is a CIS phenotype apparent in children with disorders of sex development? Milder testicular dysgenesis is associated with a higher risk of malignancy - Beyond the Abstract

    Testicular embryonic differentiation is due to a cascade of gene activations in the bipotential gonadal ridge. Sertoli cells differentiate by the sequential expression of Sry and SOX9 that prompts their clustering with recently arrived germ cells to form testis cords, the precursors of postnatal seminiferous tubules. Alterations in this process may lead to testicular dysgenesis, the phenotypic expression of Disorders of Sex Development (DSD), congenital anomalies that involve impaired development of chromosomal, gonadal or anatomic sex.

    Published July 15, 2015
  • Laparoscopic parastomal herniorrhaphy utilizing transversus abdominis release and a modified Sugarbaker technique: A case report.

    A 69-year-old woman was referred to our department with complaints of abdominal discomfort in the standing position. She had undergone robot-assisted radical cystectomy and ileal conduit urinary diversion for bladder cancer 10 months earlier.

    Published June 6, 2020
  • Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy Supported by Training Involving Personalized Silicone Replica Poured in Three-Dimensional Printed Casting Mold.

    Most kidney neoplasms are found incidentally and qualify for nephron-sparing surgery. Laparoscopic approach is beneficial to these patients because of its minimally invasive approach. However, these operations are both difficult and require plenty of experience and extended training.

    Published January 8, 2017
  • Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy compared to open radical prostatectomy: Comparison between surgical time, complications and length of hospital stay.

    There are very few articles comparing open radical prostatectomy (OPR) with laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP).

    To compare the surgical time, the postoperative complications and the hospital stay in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with ORP or LRP.

    Published December 9, 2019
  • Laparoscopic surgery for upper ureteral calculi in geriatric patients: 5 years experience.

    Objective: We have reviewed the success of laparoscopic calculi surgeries in geriatric patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on the laparoscopic ureterolithotomy surgeries performed at our central between January 2014 and January 2019 to treat upper ureteral calculi in geriatric patients.

    Published July 14, 2019
  • Long-term oncologic outcomes of laparoscopic renal cryoablation as primary treatment for small renal masses - Beyond the Abstract

    Historically, Laparoscopic renal cryoablation [LRC] was considered as an inferior treatment option relative to PN with respect to oncologic outcomes. However, the most recent long-term assessments of cancer control showed comparable outcomes with either treatment strategies. In consequence, current guidelines admit that available evidence does not allow any definitive recommendations regarding oncological outcomes in favor of LRC or PN.

    Published July 15, 2015
  • Minimally Invasive Transanal Repair of Rectourethral Fistulas.

    BACKGROUND: Rectourethral fistulas (RUFs) represent an uncommon complication of pelvic surgery, especially radical prostatectomy. To date there is no standardised treatment for managing RUFs. This represents a challenge for surgeons, mainly because of the potential recurrence risk.

    OBJECTIVE: To describe our minimally invasive transanal repair (MITAR) of RUFs and to assess its safety and outcomes.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We retrospectively evaluated 12 patients who underwent MITAR of RUF at our centre from October 2008 to December 2014. Exclusion criteria were a fistula diameter greater than 1.5cm, sepsis, and/or faecaluria.

    SURGICAL PROCEDURE: After fistula identification through cystoscopy and 5F-catheter positioning within the fistula, MITAR is performed using laparoscopic instruments introduced through Parks' anal retractor. The fibrotic margins of the fistula are carefully dissected by a lozenge incision of the rectal wall, parallel to the rectal axis. Under the healthy flap of the rectal wall the urothelium is located and the fistulous tract is sutured with interrupted stitches. After a leakage test of the bladder, the rectal wall is sutured with interrupted stitches. Electrocoagulation is never used during this procedure.

    MEASUREMENTS: Fistula closure, postoperative complications, and recurrence.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Median follow-up was 21 (range, 12-74) mo. Median operative time was 58 (range, 50-70) min. Median hospital stay was 1.5 (range, 1-4) d. Early surgical complications occurred in one patient (8.3%). Recurrence did not occur in any of the cases. Limitations included retrospective analysis, small case load, and lack of experience with radiation-induced fustulas.

    CONCLUSIONS: MITAR is a safe, effective, and reproducible procedure. Its advantages are low morbidity and quick recovery, and no need for a colostomy.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: We studied the treatment of rectourethral fistulas. Our technique, transanally performed using laparoscopic instruments, was found to be safe, feasible, and effective, with limited risk of complications.

    Eur Urol. 2017 Jan;71(1):133-138. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2016.06.006. Epub 2016 Jun 20.Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

    Nicita G1, Villari D2, Caroassai Grisanti S2, Marzocco M2, Li Marzi V2, Martini A2.

    Author information
    1 Department of Urology, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy. 
    2 Department of Urology, University of Florence, Careggi Hospital, Florence, Italy.

    KEYWORDS: Fistula treatment; Laparoscopic instruments; Minimally invasive surgery; Transanal approach

    Read Abstract 

    Read Full Text at European Urology  

    Published January 31, 2017
  • Outcomes of laparoscopic resection of urachal remnants followed by novel umbilicoplasty.

    The purpose of the study was to report the outcomes of our modified techniques of laparoscopic urachal resection, followed by novel umbilical-plasty using dermal regenerative grafts for symptomatic urachal remnants.

    Published December 9, 2018
  • Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors and Vacuum Erection Device for Penile Rehabilitation After Laparoscopic Nerve-Preserving Radical Proctectomy for Rectal Cancer: A Prospective Controlled Trial.

    The current study sought to clarify the role of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) and a vacuum erection device (VED) in penile rehabilitation after laparoscopic nerve-preserving radical proctectomy (LNRP) for rectal cancer.

    Published August 29, 2016
  • Preliminary kidney parenchymal ligation using Endoloop® ligatures-A simple method to achieve a trifecta in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without hilar clamping for polar complex tumors.

    To describe a novel and simple technique of preliminary kidney parenchymal ligation using Endoloop® ligatures during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (PN) without hilar clamping for polar complex tumor cases.

    Published September 2, 2018
  • PROSPER Trial Journal Club: Enzalutamide and Survival in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer - Zachary Klaassen and Christopher J.D. Wallis

    In this Journal Club, Zachary Klaassen and  Christopher Wallis review the recently published New England Journal of Medicine article Enzalutamide and Survival in Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer, the double-blind, phase 3 PROSPER trial. Men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer (defined on the basis of conventional imaging and a PSA doubling time of ≤10 months) who were continuing to receive androgen-deprivation therapy were randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) to receive enzalutamide at a dose of 160 mg or placebo once daily.


    Christopher J.D. Wallis, MD, Ph.D., Instructor in Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee

    Zachary Klaassen, MD, MSc, Urologic Oncologist, Assistant Professor Surgery/Urology at the Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University, Georgia Cancer Center

    Read the Full Video Transcript

    Zachary Klaassen: Welcome to this UroToday Journal Club. We'll be discussing enzalutamide and survival in non-metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. My name is Zach Klaassen. I'm an Assistant Professor in the Division of Urology at the Medical College of Georgia, and joining me is Chris Wallis, he's a Fellow in Urological Oncology at Vanderbilt University in Nashville.

    As I mentioned, we'll be discussing this paper that was recently published in the New England Journal of Medicine following presentation at the 2020 ASCO Virtual Meeting. The first author is Cora Sternberg for the PROSPER investigators.

    By way of background, enzalutamide is an oral androgen receptor inhibitor, and it's been approved in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in both the pre-chemo and post-chemo state based on the AFFIRM and PREVAIL trials. It was also recently approved in men with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer based on ENZAMET and the ARCHES trial.

    Enzalutamide was first approved by the FDA in 2018 in this disease space of non-metastatic CRPC on the basis of improved metastasis-free survival compared to ADT alone. You can see here that the hazard ratio for metastasis or death was 0.29 with a 95% confidence interval of .24 to .35, and this was published by Hussain and colleagues in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2018.

    Subsequent to this publication was a quality of life study from this data, which was published in Lancet Oncology in 2019, looking at several factors that showed that enzalutamide compared to ADT alone improved health-related quality of life, including the BPI-sf item 3 tool, the EORTC QLQ-PR25 urinary symptoms metric, as well as that same metric for bowel symptoms, the FACT-P total score, and finally the European quality of life visual analog scale. So, you can see an early separation of the curves for all of these quality of life metrics favoring enzalutamide.

    In the initial publication in 2018, which was the primary analysis of PROSPER, there were 23 months of follow-up, but the OS data was immature and the median OS was not reached. At this point in time, they had 165 deaths, which was 28% of the pre-specified survival events for the final analysis. The publication that was published in June of 2020 is the survival analysis with longer follow-up in the PROSPER trial, which we'll be discussing today.

    This was a multinational, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, Phase III trial of 300 sites and 32 countries. The key inclusion criteria were confirmed prostate adenocarcinoma with an increasing PSA despite a castrate level of testosterone, a baseline PSA level of greater than two nanograms per milliliter, a PSA doubling time of less than 10 months, and no evidence of metastatic disease.

    In terms of their methods, stratification was based on PSA doubling time of less than or greater than six months. They also stratified based on previous or current use of bone-targeting agents, and randomization was two to one for ADT plus enzalutamide versus ADT plus placebo. Their primary endpoint was MFS or death, which, as I mentioned before, was reported in their 2018 New England Journal of Medicine article, and there were several secondary endpoints as you can see here, one of which was overall survival, which was the key endpoint discussed in their 2020 update.

    Their efficacy endpoint was in the ITT population. They evaluated safety, which was described as time from the first dose to 30 days after the last dose or to the day before initiation of a new antineoplastic therapy. For their final analysis of overall survival, they needed 590 deaths to provide 85% power to detect a hazard ratio of 0.77 with a two-sided significance level of 0.05. This was the third preplan analysis for overall survival. After adjusting for multiplicity, they detected if there was a P value of less than or equal to 0.021, this indicated statistical significance.

    Christopher Wallis: Thanks for the setup, Zach. I'll talk now about the results of the updated overall survival analysis and help put these in a little bit of context.

    The original publication of the PROSPER trial described some of these initial background features, but we'll just review them quickly. Patients were screened and accrued between 2013 and 2017, with enrollment stopped after about 450 MFS events, giving adequate power for the primary outcome. There was two to one randomization schema to enzalutamide versus placebo and, as Zach described before, this was stratified on the basis of receipt of prior bone-targeting agents and PSA doubling time. As we might expect from the fact that enzalutamide prolonged metastasis-free survival, the median duration of treatment was longer for patients who were on therapy than on placebo.

    Now, these baseline characteristics come from the initial publication, but as we would expect, they ought to be the same in the updated analysis, and so we see a fairly typical prostate cancer population, the median age in the mid-70s, good performance status, median PSAs in the range of 10, and a doubling time in the range of four months. Bone-targeted therapy was used infrequently in only about 10% of the population at baseline.

    Now, following primary analysis of the metastasis-free survival endpoint, trial data were unblinded. And at that time, given that it demonstrated benefits of enzalutamide in prolonging metastasis-free survival, patients who were receiving placebo who hadn't yet progressed, that is who were still nmCRPC, were allowed to cross over. So, among 114 eligible patients randomized to placebo who had not progressed, 87 of those crossed over to enzalutamide. And this, as you might imagine, affects our ability to detect overall survival differences in an ITT analysis.

    Despite the crossover, as we see here, overall survival was significantly improved for patients receiving enzalutamide compared to placebo. With a median follow-up of 48 months, we see a median survival of 67 months in those patients on therapy and 56 months in those initially randomized to placebo. As a result, the hazard ratio is 0.73 and a P-value of 0.001. As Zach alluded to before, due to multiplicity, the threshold for statistical significance here was 0.021, so this reaches statistical significance.

    In subgroup analyses, we see a relatively consistent effect across subgroups defined based on geographic region, patient age, performance status, PSA doubling time, as well as absolute PSA values, the use of bone-targeting agents, Gleason Score, LDH values, and hemoglobin values, indicating that there are no specific subgroups for whom a greater or lesser benefit would be expected.

    As of the data cutoff of October 15, 2019, about 60% of patients who were randomized to enzalutamide had subsequently stopped therapy, and a reasonable portion of those who had crossed over later had also stopped. Treatment was stopped for both disease progression and adverse events, and we'll talk about that a little bit here.

    So, the next lines of therapy, following progression or discontinuation for toxicity, subsequent therapy was used in about one-third of the patients randomized to enzalutamide and about two-thirds of those randomized to placebo. Abiraterone was the most commonly used agent in patients who were initially randomized to placebo, where docetaxel was the most commonly used agent in those initially randomized to enzalutamide. And this makes sense given what we know from other work from Kim Chi's group as well as the CARD study, suggesting that failure on one androgen receptor-targeting agent should lead us to consider cytotoxic chemotherapy rather than an androgen receptor-targeting switch.

    In terms of adverse events, this is a summary of overall any adverse events and serious adverse events. We see that these are quite common in both groups, although somewhat higher in the enzalutamide-treated population with a 94% rate of any adverse events versus 82% in the placebo group. Serious events, again, were more common in the enzalutamide group at 48% as compared to 27% in the placebo group, and adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 17% of those in the enzalutamide group and only nine in the placebo group. Deaths were uncommon in both, but slightly more prevalent in the enzalutamide group.

    Based on data from the use of enzalutamide in other disease states, including metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, there are specific adverse events of interest, including fatigue or asthenia and seizures, and these are summarized here. Fatigue is somewhat more common in the enzalutamide group with a proportion of 46% as compared to 22 in the placebo group. However, very few seizures were noted in the study population.

    Now, despite the fact that we've been able to demonstrate a statistically significant difference in overall survival, these data are still relatively immature. And as we see from data on the use of enzalutamide in early metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, as data matures, we may expect changing effect estimates. And so, these show that from the initial analysis in 2014, 22 months through extended analysis published in 2017 of 31 months, and now onto 70-month median follow-up, the hazard ratio of the benefit of enzalutamide in early metastatic disease has moved towards one, although remains statistically significant, so Dr. Beer highlighted that this may occur in the non-metastatic space as well when he was discussing this paper at the ASCO 2020 virtual meeting.

    In conclusion, an updated analysis of the PROSPER trial shows improved overall survival for patients with nmCRPC who receive enzalutamide as compared to placebo. There are now three agents approved for non-metastatic CRPC on the basis of metastasis-free survival improvements, and each of these has now demonstrated subsequent proven benefits in overall survival. The specific magnitude of benefit is likely to change as the data matures, but these data provide encouraging information for our patients, suggesting that early use of androgen-targeting agents in patients with castration-resistant disease is likely to provide a survival benefit.

    I'd like to thank you for your time and hope that this session has proved both interesting and informative for you.

    Published June 19, 2020
  • Retroperitoneal Laparoscopic Radical Nephrectomy for Large (>7 cm) Solid Renal Tumors: Comparison of Perioperative Outcomes with the Transperitoneal Approach.

    To describe our technique for retroperitoneal laparoscopic radical nephrectomy (LRN) and to present the perioperative outcomes of our retroperitoneal LRN series for large (>7 cm) solid renal tumors and to compare them with those of the transperitoneal approach.

    Published March 6, 2017
  • Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy is a safe and effective procedure for patients with bladder cancer compared to laparoscopic and open surgery: Perioperative outcomes of a single-center experience.

    We compared the perioperative outcomes of patients with bladder cancer according to three different procedures: robot-assisted laparoscopic radical cystectomy (RALC), laparoscopic radical cystectomy (LRC), and open radical cystectomy (ORC).

    Published January 14, 2018
  • Robot-Assisted versus Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy: A Comparison of 250 Cases.

    Living kidney donation is the best treatment for end-stage renal disease, however, the best surgical approach for minimally-invasive donor nephrectomy (DN) is still a matter of debate. This bi-centric study aimed to retrospectively compare perioperative outcomes and postoperative kidney function after 257 transperitoneal DNs including 52 robot-assisted (RDN) and 205 laparoscopic DNs (LDN).

    Published May 31, 2020
  • Single-docking robotic-assisted nephroureterectomy and extravesical bladder cuff excision without intraoperative repositioning: The technique and oncological outcomes.

    /Objective: Currently there are few report of oncologic outcomes following robotic-assisted radical nephroureterectomy (RRNU) based on long-term follow-up. To evaluate the therapeutic effect of RRNU for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), a technique of single-docking RRNU was described and its oncological outcomes was evaluated.

    Published January 20, 2020
  • The Australian laparoscopic radical prostatectomy learning curve.

    International estimates of the laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) learning curve extend to as many as 1000 cases, but is unknown for Fellowship-trained Australian surgeons.

    Prospectively collected data from nine Australian surgeons who performed 2943 consecutive LRP cases was retrospectively reviewed.

    Published May 20, 2017
  • Three-dimensional (3D) versus two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopic adrenalectomy: A case-control study.

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is today considered the gold standard of treatment for adrenal tumors. The development of high definition cameras does not eliminate the major limitation of two-dimensional (2D) laparoscopy: lack of depth perception and loss of spatial orientation.

    Published December 31, 2015
  • WCE 2013 - Session Highlights: Evaluation of the impact of three-dimensional vision on laparoscopic performance

    NEW ORLEANS, LA USA ( - Recent technological advancements have led to the introduction of new 3-dimensional (3D) cameras in laparoscopic surgery.

    Published October 23, 2013