Renal Cell Carcinoma Articles


  • Perioperative and Oncologic Outcomes of Nephrectomy and Caval Thrombectomy Using Extracorporeal Circulation and Deep Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest for Renal Cell Carcinoma Invading the Supradiaphragmatic Inferior Vena Cava and/or Right Atrium.

    Radical nephrectomy (RN) and caval thrombectomy (CT) for renal cell carcinoma, with extracorporeal circulation (ECC) and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a challenging surgical approach.

    Published September 26, 2017
  • Phase I study of axitinib and everolimus in metastatic solid tumours and extension to metastatic renal cell carcinoma: Results of EVAX study.

    Anti-angiogenic and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have shown efficacy in solid tumours. Reported combination of both drugs was deemed to be too toxic. Due to a potential favourable safety profile of axitinib (AX), a phase I study combining everolimus (EV) and AX for solid tumours was explored.

    Published September 11, 2017
  • Phase I/II Study of Pembrolizumab and Cabozantinib in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma


    Phase I/II Study of Pembrolizumab and Cabozantinib in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Condition: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Study Type: Interventional

    Clinical Trials Identifier NCT 8-digits: NCT03149822

    Sponsor: University of Colorado, Denver

    Phase: Phase 1/Phase 2


    • Age: minimum 18 Years maximum 100 Years
    • Gender: All

    Inclusion Criteria:

    • 1. Subjects must have histological or cytological documentation of locally advanced, recurrent, or metastatic renal cell carcinoma. 2. Be willing and able to provide written informed consent/assent for the trial. 3. Stated willingness to complywith all study procedures and be available for the duration of the trial. 4. Be ≥ 18 years of age on day of signing informed consent. 5. Have measurable or evaluable disease based on RECIST 1.1. 6. Recovery to baseline or ≤ Grade 1 CTCAE v.4.0 from toxicities related to any prior treatments, unless AE(s) are clinically non-significant and/or stable on supportive therapy. 7. Confirmed availability of representative archival tumor specimens in paraffin blocks (preferred) or ≥ 10 unstained slides, with an associated pathology report.
    • Acceptable samples include core needle biopsies for deep tumor tissue or excisional, incisional, or punch biopsies for cutaneous, subcutaneous, or mucosal lesions.
    • Tumor tissue from bone metastases is not evaluable for PD-L1 expression and is therefore not acceptable.
    • A subject with insufficient or unavailable archival tissue may be eligible, upon discussion with the Principal Investigator, if the subject is willing to consent to undergo a pretreatment core, punch, or excisional/incisional biopsy sample collection of the tumor. 8. Have a performance status of 0 or 1 on the ECOG Performance Scale. 9. Demonstrate adequate organ function as defined by desired lab values. 10. Female subject of childbearing potential should have a negative urine or serum pregnancy within 72 hours prior to receiving the first dose of study medication. If the urine test is positive or cannot be confirmed as negative, a serum pregnancy test will be required. 11. Female subjects of childbearing potential (Section 5.7.2) must be willing to use an adequate method of contraception as outlined in Section 5.7.2
    • Contraception, for the course of the study through 120 days after the last dose of study medication. Note: Abstinence is acceptable if this is the usual lifestyle and preferred contraception for the subject. 12. Male subjects of childbearing potential (Section 5.7.1) must agree to use an adequate method of contraception as outlined in Section 5.7.1- Contraception, starting with the first dose of study therapy through 120 days after the last dose of study therapy. Note: Abstinence is acceptable if this is the usual lifestyle and preferred contraception for the subject.

    Exclusion Criteria:

    • 1. Is currently participating and receiving study therapy or has participated in a study of an investigational agent and received study therapy or used an investigational device within 4 weeks of the first dose of treatment. 2. Has a diagnosis of immunodeficiency or is receiving systemic steroiderapy equivalent to ≥ 10 mg/day of prednisone, or any other form of immunosuppressive therapy within 7 days prior to the first dose of trial treatment. 3. Has a known history of active TB (Bacillus Tuberculosis) 4. Has had prior treatment with pembrolizumab. 5. Has had prior treatment with cabozantinib. 6. Has had a prior anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) within 4 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse events due to agents administered more than 4 weeks earlier.
    • Note: Subjects with stable, treated hypothyroidism or adrenal insufficiency may qualify for the study 7. Has had prior chemotherapy, targeted small molecule therapy, or radiation therapy within 2 weeks prior to study Day 1 or who has not recovered (i.e., ≤ Grade 1 or at baseline) from adverse events due to a previously administered agent.
    • Subjects with ≤ Grade 2 neuropathy are an exception to this criterion and may qualify for the study.
    • Subjects with hypertension managed with medication are an exception to this criterion and may qualify for the study.
    • Subjects with ≤ Grade 2 endocrinopathy (e.g. hypothyroidism or adrenal insufficiency managed with medication) are an exception to this criterion and may qualify for the study. 8. Has had major surgery within 4 weeks or minor surgery within 2 weeks prior to study Day 1. Subjects must have recovered adequately from the toxicity and/or complications from the intervention prior to starting therapy. 9. Prior treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors is allowed, provided that no treatment-related Grade ≥ 3 adverse events (other than Grade 3 endocrinopathy managed with replacement therapy) were observed and at least a minimum of 28 days have elapsed between the last dose of prior treatment and the proposed Cycle 1 Day 1. 10. Has a known additional malignancy that is progressing or requires active treatment. Exceptions include basal cell carcinoma of the skin or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin that has undergone potentially curative therapy or in situ cervical cancer, carcinoma in situ or superficial bladder cancer, low-grade prostate cancer, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN), and other low grade cancers that is suitable for active surveillance in the opinion of the investigator. 11. Has known active central nervous system (CNS) metastases and/or carcinomatous meningitis. Active CNS metastases will be defined as brain lesions that 1) require intervention with surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), or whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) or 2) require anti-epileptic therapy, systemic steroid treatment, or intrathecal therapy. Subjects with previously treated brain metastases may participate provided they are stable (without evidence of progression by imaging for at least four weeks after completion of focal therapy for brain metastases and any neurologic symptoms have returned to baseline), have no evidence of new or enlarging brain metastases, and are not using steroids for at least 7 days prior to trial treatment. This exception does not include carcinomatous meningitis, which is excluded regardless of clinical stability. 12. Has active autoimmune disease that has required systemic treatment in the past 2 years (i.e. with use of disease modifying agents, corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs). Replacement therapy (e.g., thyroxine, insulin, or physiologic corticosteroid replacement therapy for adrenal or pituitary insufficiency, etc.) is allowed. 13. Has history of solid organ transplantation. 14. Has history of osteonecrosis of the jaw. 15. Has history of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. 16. Has history of wound dehiscence or complications requiring medical intervention within 6 months of study entry. 17. Has history of (non-infectious) pneumonitis that required steroids or active, non- infectious pneumonitis. 18. Has an active infection requiring systemic therapy with IV antibiotics. 19. Has uncontrolled, significant intercurrent or recent illness including, but not limited to, the following conditions: 1. Cardiovascular disorders:
    • Symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, serious cardiac arrhythmias.
    • Uncontrolled hypertension defined as sustained BP > 150 mm Hg systolic or > 100 mm Hg diastolic despite optimal antihypertensive treatment.
    • Stroke (including TIA), myocardial infarction, or other ischemic event, or thromboembolic event (e.g., deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) within 3 months before randomization. 2. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders including those associated with a high risk of perforation or fistula formation:
    • Tumors invading the GI-tract, active peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, cholecystitis, symptomatic cholangitis or appendicitis, acute pancreatitis or acute obstruction of the pancreatic or biliary duct, or gastric outlet obstruction.
    • Abdominal fistula, gastrointestinal perforation, bowel obstruction, or intra-abdominal abscess within 6 months before randomization. Complete healing of an intra-abdominal abscess must be confirmed before study initiation. 3. Has clinically significant hematuria, hematemesis, or hemoptysis of > 0.5 teaspoon within 3 months before randomization. 4. Known endobronchial disease manifestation. Patients with suspected endobronchial disease on imaging who have no evidence of endobronchial disease on bronchoscopy are allowed. Patients with treated endobronchial disease are also allowed provided they are stable. 5. Lesions invading major pulmonary blood vessels. 20. Has a history or current evidence of any condition, therapy, or laboratory abnormality that might confound the results of the trial, interfere with the subject's participation for the full duration of the trial, or is not in the best interest of the subject to participate, in the opinion of the treating investigator. 21. Has known psychiatric or substance abuse disorders that would interfere with cooperation with the requirements of the trial. 22. Is pregnant or breastfeeding, or expecting to conceive or father children within the projected duration of the trial, starting with the pre-screening or screening visit through 120 days after the last dose of trial treatment. 23. Has an inability to swallow tablets or capsules. 24. Has a previously identified allergy or hypersensitivity to components of the study treatment formulations. 25. Has a known history of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (HIV 1/2 antibodies). 26. Has known active Hepatitis B (e.g., HBsAg reactive) or Hepatitis C (e.g., HCV RNA [qualitative] is detected). 27. Has received a live vaccine within 30 days of planned start of study therapy. Note: Seasonal influenza vaccines for injection are generally inactivated flu vaccines and are allowed; however intranasal influenza vaccines (e.g., Flu-Mist®) are live attenuated vaccines, and are not allowed.

    View trial on

    Published June 20, 2018
  • Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With High-Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma


    Phase II Study of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients With High-Grade Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    Condition: Urothelial Carcinoma

    Study Type: Interventional

    Clinical Trials Identifier NCT 8-digits: NCT01261728

    Sponsor: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

    Phase: Phase 2


    • Age: minimum 18 Years maximum N/A
    • Gender: All

    Inclusion Criteria:

    • Histologically confirmed high-grade upper tract transitional cell carcinoma at MSKCC or a participating site and/or radiographically visible tumor stage T2-T4a N0/X M0 disease with positive selective urinary cytology or high-grade concomitant bladder tumor. Hydronephrosis associated with tumor on biopsy will be considered invasive by definition.
    • Medically appropriate candidate for radical nephroureterectomy or ureterectomy as per MSKCC or a participating site attending urologic oncologist
    • Karnofsky Performance Status ≥ 70%
    • Age ≥ 18 years of age
    • Required Initial Laboratory Values:
    • Absolute neutrophil count ≥ 1500 cells/mm3
    • Platelets ≥ 100,000 cells/mm3
    • Hemoglobin ≥ 9.0g/dL
    • Bilirubin ≤ 1.2
    • Aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) ≤ 2.5 x ULN for the institution
    • Alkaline phosphatase ≤ 2.5 x ULN for the institution
    • Serum creatinine ≤ 1.3 mg/dL if male or ≤ 1.1 mg/dL if female OR calculated creatinine clearance ≥ 55 ml/min/1.73m^2 If female of childbearing potential, serum pregnancy test is negative.
    • Patients with reproductive potential must use an effective method to avoid pregnancy for the duration of the trial. ml/min/1.73m2 using the formula: CKD epi : GFR = 141 X min(Scr/κ,1)α X max(Scr/κ,1)-1.209 X 0.993Age X 1.018 [if female] X 1.159 [if black]
    • Scr is serum creatinine, k is 0.7 for females and 0.9 for males, a is -0.329 for females and -0.411 for males, min indicates the minimum of Scr/k or 1, and max indicates the maximum of Scr/k or 1.
    • If female of childbearing potential, serum pregnancy test is negative.
    • Patients with reproductive potential must use an effective method to avoid pregnancy for the duration of the trial

    Exclusion Criteria:

    • Concomitant bladder urothelial carcinoma is acceptable if it is organ confined and surgically resectable.
    • Presence of carcinoma in situ (CIS)
    • Prior systemic chemotherapy (prior intravesical therapy is allowed)
    • Prior radiation therapy to the bladder
    • Evidence of NYHA functional class III or IV heart disease.
    • Serious intercurrent medical or psychiatric illness, including serious active infection.
    • Preexisting sensory grade 3 neuropathy
    • Major surgery or radiation therapy < 4 weeks of starting study treatment.
    • Concomitant use of any other investigational drugs
    • Any of the following within the 6 months prior to study drug administration: myocardial infarction, severe/unstable angina, coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, symptomatic congestive heart failure, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, or pulmonary embolism.
    • Ongoing cardiac dysrhythmias of NCI CTCAE Version 4.0 grade ≥ 2.
    • Uncontrolled hypertension (>150/100 mmHg despite optimal medical therapy).
    • Known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illness or other active infection. Patients with HIV but no evidence of AIDS will be considered candidates.
    • Concurrent treatment on another clinical trial involving an intervention which may affect the primary endpoint. Supportive care trials or non-treatment trials, e.g. QOL, are allowed.
    • Ongoing treatment with therapeutic doses of warfarin or low molecular weight heparin (low dose warfarin up to 2 mg po daily or use of subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin for thromboembolic prophylaxis is allowed).
    • Pregnancy or breast-feeding. Patients must be surgically sterile or be postmenopausal, or must agree to use effective contraception during the period of therapy. The definition of effective contraception will be based on the judgment of the MSKCC and participating site PI. Male patients must be surgically sterile or agree to use effective contraception

    View trial on

    Published April 30, 2018
  • Plasmatic miR-210, miR-221 and miR-1233 profile: potential liquid biopsies candidates for renal cell carcinoma.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a challenge for clinicians since the nonexistence of screening and monitoring tests contributes to the fact that one-third of patients are diagnosed with metastatic disease and 20-40% of the remaining patients will also develop metastasis.

    Published January 5, 2018
  • Positive surgical margin following radical nephrectomy is an independent predictor of local recurrence and disease-specific survival.

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) are recognized as an adverse prognostic sign and are often associated with higher rates of local and systemic disease recurrence. The data regarding the oncological outcome for PSM following radical nephrectomy (RN) is limited.

    Published November 8, 2017
  • Preclinical trial of the multi-targeted lenvatinib in combination with cellular immunotherapy for treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Lenvatinib is an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, RET and KIT.

    Published September 19, 2017
  • Predictive Nomogram for Recurrence Following Surgery for Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer with Tumor Thrombus.

    Following surgery for non-metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with tumor thrombus, the risk of recurrence is significant but variable among individual patients. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a predictive nomogram for individual estimation of recurrence risk following surgery for RCC with venous tumor thrombus.

    Published April 24, 2017
  • Predictive value of the modified Glasgow Prognostic Score for the therapeutic effects of molecular-targeted drugs on advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    Inflammation is considered to be a prognostic factor for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). An inflammation-based prognostic score (modified Glasgow Prognostic Score; mGPS) is widely used for preoperative patients; however, little information is available regarding its prognostic value in patients with RCC treated with molecular-targeted drugs.

    Published May 23, 2017
  • Predictors of genitourinary malignancy in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria.

    To report the incidence of genitourinary malignancy and identify associated risk factors in patients undergoing urologic evaluation for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (AMH) according to the 2012 American Urologic Association guidelines.

    Published October 19, 2017
  • Preoperative Albumin to Globulin Ratio (AGR) as Prognostic Factor in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Background: Malnutrition and systemic inflammatory response are frequently associated with prognosis in patients with several types of cancer, including renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The study is aimed to investigate the ability of preoperative serum albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) to predict the long-term mortality of RCC patients.

    Published March 14, 2017
  • Preoperative albumin to globulin ratio predicts survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

    In this retrospective analysis, we evaluated associations between albumin to globulin ratio (AGR), clinicopathological characteristics, and survival in 592 patients with localized or locally advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) prior to nephrectomy.

    Published February 15, 2017
  • Preoperative C-Reactive Protein Values as a Potential Component in Outcome Prediction Models of Metastasized Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Receiving Cytoreductive Nephrectomy.

    To validate preoperative C-reactive protein (CRP) levels as a prognostic marker for survival in a metastasized renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patient cohort receiving cytoreductive nephrectomy (CN).

    By chart review, 146 mRCC patients receiving CN at our tertiary referral centre from 1997 to 2015 were identified retrospectively.

    Published June 30, 2017
  • Preoperative cholesterol level as a new independent predictive factor of survival in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with cyto-reductive nephrectomy.

    The obesity and lipid metabolism were previously proposed to be related with the clinical outcomes of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We tried to investigate the relationship between preoperative cholesterol level (PCL) and survival outcomes in patients with mRCC.

    Published June 1, 2017
  • Pretreatment Serum Prealbumin as an Independent Prognostic Indicator in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Using Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors as First-Line Target Therapy.

    Although serum prealbumin is a sensitive marker to assess malnutrition, its prognostic impact in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) remains elusive.

    Patients' data were retrospectively retrieved from the medical records of Renji Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine from March 2006 to July 2015 to access overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

    Published February 16, 2017
  • Prognostic Benefit of Surgical Management of Renal Cell Carcinoma Invading the Inferior Vena Cava.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for approximately 3 % of adult malignancies and 90-95 % of neoplasms arising from the kidney. One of the unique features of RCC is the tumor thrombus formation that migrates into the venous system including renal vein (RV) and inferior vena cava (IVC).

    Published January 31, 2017
  • Prognostic DNA methylation markers for renal cell carcinoma: a systematic review.

    Despite numerous published prognostic methylation markers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), none of these have yet changed patient management. Our aim is to systematically review and evaluate the literature on prognostic DNA methylation markers for RCC.

    Published August 25, 2017
  • Prognostic Significance of Extensive Necrosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Few studies using the current classification of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have looked at a large number of cases with near total necrosis. We identified 21 cases of resections of RCC with >90% necrosis from the archives of Johns Hopkins Hospital between 2000-2015.

    Published July 11, 2017
  • Prognostic significance of Fuhrman grade and age for cancer-specific and overall survival in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma: results of an international multi-institutional study on 2189 patients.

    Because the prognostic impact of the clinical and pathological features on cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with papillary renal cell carcinoma (papRCC) is still controversial, we want to assess the impact of clinicopathological features, including Fuhrman grade and age, on survival in surgically treated papRCC patients in a large multi-institutional series.

    Published August 28, 2017
  • Programmed cell death ligand 1 and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte status in patients with renal cell carcinoma and sarcomatoid dedifferentiation.

    The immune profile of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma (sRCC), including the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) status, has not been well characterized.

    An immunohistochemical digital analysis of PD-L1, PD-1, CD4, and CD8 was performed on nephrectomy specimens from 118 sRCC patients and 92 nonsarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients.

    Published September 1, 2017
  • Radical Nephrectomy With or Without Lymph Node Dissection for High-Risk Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Multi-Institutional Analysis.

    LND may benefit patients at increased risk of lymph node (LN) metastases from renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We therefore evaluated the association of LND with survival among high-risk patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) for RCC.

    Published December 14, 2017
  • Randomized Phase III Trial Evaluating the Importance of Nephrectomy in Patients Presenting With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib


    Randomized Phase III Trial Evaluating the Importance of Nephrectomy in Patients Presenting With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Sunitinib

    Condition: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Study Type: Interventional

    Clinical Trials Identifier NCT 8-digits: NCT00930033

    Sponsor: Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris

    Phase: Phase 3


    • Age: minimum 18 Years maximum N/A
    • Gender: All

    Inclusion Criteria:

    • age ≥ 18 years
    • ECOG Performance Status 0
    • 1
    • Biopsy (primary tumour or metastases) confirming the diagnosis of clear cell carcinoma
    • Documented metastatic disease
    • Absence of prior systemic treatment for kidney cancer including AA
    • Tumour amenable to nephrectomy (partial or total) in the opinion of the patient's urologist. Patients presenting with an inferior vena cava thrombosis can be included.
    • Patients for which the indication of Sunitinib is considered according to the recommendations rules given by national health authorities of participating countries. The prescription of Sunitinib in the circumstances of the study is considered as a standard treatment.
    • Platelets > or = 100 x 109/L, haemoglobin >or = 9 g/dl, neutrophils >or = 1.5 x 109/L;
    • Bilirubin < or = 2 mg/dL, aspartate transaminase (ASAT) and alanine transaminase (ALAT)< or = 2.5 times the upper normal limit (UNL) or < or = 5 times UNL for patients with liver metastases
    • Patients of child bearing age should use contraceptive methods
    • Patient able to follow the procedures outlined in the protocol as far as the planning of visits and examinations are concerned.
    • Life expectancy ≥ 3 months
    • Written informed consent
    • Patient without brain metastases or with radiotherapy or surgery treated brain metastases without progression into 6 weeks and non treated by corticoid
    • Patient non treated by anticoagulants excepted HBPM

    Exclusion Criteria:

    • Prior systemic treatment for kidney cancer (including Anti Angiogenic)
    • Bilateral kidney cancer
    • Pregnant or breast feeding women
    • Acute coronary syndrome or episode of myocardial infarction or severe or unstable angina within the last 6 months as well as severe diabetes with severe peripheral arteriopathy or deep phlebitis not treated with low molecular weight heparin or arterial thrombosis within the last 3 months
    • Patients being treated with antivitamin K with curative intent (please note that patients being treated with low molecular weight heparin can be included)
    • Medical, general or psychiatric difficulties which, in the opinion of the Investigator, would make it inappropriate for trial entry
    • Symptomatic or untreated brain metastases (patients with brain metastases that have been treated by radiotherapy or surgery and have stable disease within 6 weeks, and are not requiring treatment with corticosteroids can be included)
    • Previous history of gastric disease or malabsorption, syndrome compromising the absorption of Sunitinib
    • Experimental treatment within the 28 days preceding inclusion
    • Other cancer within the previous 5 years (except for insitu skin carcinoma and treated localised prostate cancer with undetectable PSA)
    • Patient has received treatment with IV biphosphonate

    View trial on

    Published April 30, 2018
  • Rapid Progressive Disease After Nivolumab Therapy in Three Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Rapid progressive disease (RPD), accelerated tumour growth immediate after the initiation of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy, has been reported in melanoma and lung cancer. Herein, we describe 3 cases of RPD during the initial phase of nivolumab treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Published July 6, 2017
  • Real-world experience of the feasibility and tolerability of the 2/1 dosing schedule with sunitinib in the treatment of patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma in Australia.

    Sunitinib is a first-line treatment option for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) funded by the Australian Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Toxicities are common with the standard schedule leading to alternative dosing schedules to be suggested.

    Published April 25, 2017
  • Recent advances in localized RCC: A focus on VEGF and immuno-oncology therapies.

    Recent advances in advanced renal cell cancer (RCC) research have produced new drugs and therapies for patients with metastatic disease leading to higher response rates, improvements in progression-free survival, and longer overall survival.

    Published October 24, 2017
  • Recent developments in small molecule therapies for renal cell carcinoma.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults and is known to be the 10th most common type of cancer in the world. Most of the currently available RCC drugs are tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs).

    Published August 31, 2017
  • Recommendations for the Management of Rare Kidney Cancers.

    The European Association of Urology Renal Cell Carcinoma Guideline Panel recently conducted a systematic review of treatment options for patients with advanced non-clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), which showed a substantial lack of evidence for management recommendations.

    Published July 26, 2017
  • Recommendations on managing lenvatinib and everolimus in patients with advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    There are several second-line treatment options for patients with renal cell carcinoma after first-line failure of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, especially with the recent approvals of cabozantinib, nivolumab, and the lenvatinib plus everolimus combination.

    Published September 25, 2017
  • Recurrent renal cancer in Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome: A case report.

    Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHDS) is a rare autosomal dominant disease. It is caused by constitutional mutations in the FLCN gene. Since BHDS is a rare syndrome therefore it is unknown to many physicians.

    Published December 14, 2017
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma and a Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor:A Coincidence or Instance of Von Hippel-Lindau Disease?

    We herein report a rare case of a 79-year-old man who presented with the simultaneous occurrence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) and renal cell carcinomas (RCC), without any other Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-associated lesions or any pertinent family history.

    Published August 15, 2017
  • Renal cell carcinoma histological subtype distribution differs by age, gender, and tumor size in coastal Chinese patients.

    The distribution pattern of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) histological subtypes according to age, gender and tumor size has not been well illustrated in RCC patients living in fast-developing regions of China.

    Published November 3, 2017
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma with Isolated Lymph Node Involvement: Long-term Natural History and Predictors of Oncologic Outcomes Following Surgical Resection.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with isolated lymph node (LN) involvement has historically been associated with poor prognosis. However, a subset of patients may experience long-term survival.

    To examine the natural history of RCC with isolated LN involvement following surgical resection with long-term follow-up, and to evaluate clinicopathologic features associated with disease progression and survival.

    Published January 27, 2017
  • Renal cell carcinoma with synchronous ipsilateral urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.

    The simultaneous occurrence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and urothelial carcinoma (UC) in the same kidney is extraordinarily rare, and is also known as multiple primary malignant tumors. The present study reports the case of a 76-year-old female with synchronous ipsilateral RCC and UC of the renal pelvis, who underwent operation, chemotherapy and reoperation when recurrence of RCC or UC was identified.

    Published June 16, 2017
  • Renal cell carcinoma: Atypical metastasis to inguinal lymph nodes.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tumor of the urinary tract. It is known to have variable presentations due to the extremely vascular nature of the organ. RCC are known to metastasize to lungs, bone, and brain commonly but atypical metastasis to various sites are reported in literature but as very rare pathology.

    Published March 7, 2017
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma: New Insights and Challenges for a Clinician Scientist.

    There is a growing recognition of the complex interplay between renal cell cancer (RCC), kidney function, mechanical reduction of nephron mass, and systemic agents targeting the cancer. Earlier detection of RCC and rising life expectancy of cancer survivors places a greater emphasis on preservation of renal function after cancer resection and during systemic therapy.

    Published April 11, 2017
  • Renal Cell Tumors: Understanding Their Molecular Pathological Epidemiology and the 2016 WHO Classification.

    Accumulating evidence suggests that renal cell tumors represent a group of histologically and molecularly heterogeneous diseases, even within the same histological subtype. In accordance with the increased understanding of the morphological, immunohistochemical, molecular, and epidemiological characteristics of renal cell tumors, the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of renal cell tumors has been modified.

    Published October 23, 2017
  • Renal functional outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous cryoablation or partial nephrectomy for a solitary renal mass.

    To compare renal functional changes after percutaneous cryoablation (CA) or partial nephrectomy (PN).

    Patients who underwent CA or PN for a solitary renal mass at a single institution were identified (2003-2013).

    Published May 31, 2017
  • Renal Masses Detected on FDG PET/CT in Patients With Lymphoma: Imaging Features Differentiating Primary Renal Cell Carcinomas From Renal Lymphomatous Involvement.

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the (18)F-FDG PET/CT features of solid renal masses detected in patients with lymphoma and to evaluate the ability of PET/CT to differentiate renal cell carcinoma (RCC) from renal lymphomatous involvement.

    Published January 27, 2017
  • Renoprotective Procedures with a Cold Ischemia Time of <60 min Minimize the Deterioration of Kidney Function in Open Nephron-Sparing Surgery for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    We evaluated whether nephron sparing surgery (NSS) combined with meticulous suturing of the cut stump under clamping with cooling is beneficial for oncological outcomes and also assessed the relationship between cold ischemia time and deterioration of renal function.

    Published July 28, 2017
  • Resolution of a Debilitating Paraneoplastic Parkinson-like Neurological Syndrome Following Tyrosine Inhibitor Therapy and Consolidative Nephrectomy in a Patient with Advanced Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are commonly encountered in renal cell carcinoma, but neurological manifestations are rare. Herein we report a case of a patient with locally advanced renal cell carcinoma who presented with Parkinson-like symptoms which prohibited surgery due to poor performance status.

    Published July 5, 2017
  • Results of a Phase 1/2 Study in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients Treated with a Patient-specific Adjuvant Multi-peptide Vaccine after Resection of Metastases.

    Treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma comprises metastasectomy±systemic medical treatment. Specific immunotherapy after metastasectomy could be a complementary option. In this phase 1/2 study, safety and tolerability of an adjuvant multi-peptide vaccine (UroRCC) after metastasectomy was evaluated together with immune response and efficacy, compared with a contemporary cohort of patients (n=44) treated with metastasectomy only.

    Published October 19, 2017
  • Retroperitoneal Lymphadenectomy in High-Risk Non-Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: An Analysis of the ASSURE (ECOG-ACRIN 2805) Adjuvant Trial.

    Lymphadenectomy (LND) is a well-established practice in many urologic malignancies; however, its role in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is less clear. Our primary objective was to determine whether LND impacted survival in patients with fully resected high-risk RCC.

    Published August 4, 2017
  • Risk models for patients with localised renal cell carcinoma.

    We conducted a retrospective analysis of our series to assess the factors that influenced disease-free survival (DFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) for patients with localised renal cell carcinoma (RCC).

    Published May 11, 2017
  • Robot-assisted Partial Nephrectomy: 5-yr Oncological Outcomes at a Single European Tertiary Cancer Center.

    Nowadays, there is a debate about which surgical treatment should be best for clinical T1 renal tumors. If the oncological outcomes are considered, there are many open and laparoscopic series published.

    Published November 17, 2017
  • Second Primary Cancer Risk Among Kidney Cancer Patients in Korea: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Secondary primary cancers (SPCs) commonly arise in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We designed the present study to estimate the SPC incidence in Korean patients with RCC.

    The study cohort was population-based and consisted of 40,347 individuals from the Korean Central Cancer Registry who were diagnosed with primary renal cancer between 1993 and 2013.

    Published April 24, 2017
  • SETDB2 and RIOX2 are differentially expressed among renal cell tumor subtypes, associating with prognosis and metastization.

    Increasing detection of small renal masses by imaging techniques entails the need for accurate discrimination between benign and malignant renal cell tumors (RCTs) as well as among malignant RCTs, owing to differential risk of progression through metastization.

    Published November 8, 2017
  • Should Small Renal Masses Be Biopsied?

    Over the last few decades, the incidence of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has been steadily increasing. This is primarily due to an increase in detection of small renal masses (SRMs) as a result of widespread utilization of abdominal imaging.

    Published February 13, 2017
  • Skin-to-Tumor Distance Predicts Treatment Failure of T1a Renal Cell Carcinoma Following Percutaneous Cryoablation.

    To determine the impact of skin-to-tumor (STT) distance on the risk for treatment failure following PCA.

    We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent PCA with documented T1a recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) at two academic centers between 2005 and 2015.

    Published July 5, 2017
  • Spotlight on nivolumab in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy.

    Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and molecules inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin are being used for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); however, there is still a potential for improvement.

    Published May 1, 2017
  • Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy for Inoperable Primary Kidney Cancer: A Prospective Clinical Trial.

    To assess the feasibility and safety of stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) for RCC in patients unsuitable for surgery. Secondary objectives were to assess oncologic and functional outcomes.

    Published February 13, 2017

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