Early treatment of patients at risk for developing aggressive prostate cancer is able to delay metastasis and reduce mortality; as such, up-front identification of these patients is critical. Several risk classification systems, including CAPRA-S, are currently used for disease prognostication.
A 17-gene biopsy-based reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay, which provides a Genomic Prostate Score (GPS-scale 0-100), has been validated as an independent predictor of adverse pathology and biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy (RP) in men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer (PCa).
In parallel with the inconsistency in observational studies and chemoprevention trials, the mechanisms by which selenium affects prostate cancer risk have not been elucidated. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the effects of a short-term intervention with selenium on gene expression in non-malignant prostate tissue.
The PTEN, AR, MDM2 and p53 protein network plays a central role in the development of many human cancers, thus eliciting the development of targeted cancer therapeutics. Dogs spontaneously develop tumours, and they are considered a good model for comparative oncology initiatives.
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are novel treatments that significantly improve the survival time of MIBC patients, but immunotherapeutic responses are different among MIBC patients. Therefore, it is urgent to find predictive biomarkers that can accurately identify MIBC patients who are sensitive to ICIs.
The recent introduction of a variety of molecular tests will potentially reshape the care of patients with prostate cancer.
Standard clinicopathological variables are inadequate for optimal management of prostate cancer patients. While genomic classifiers have improved patient risk classification, the multifocality and heterogeneity of prostate cancer can confound pre-treatment assessment.
The autophagy affects various aspects of the male reproductive system. Any defects in this process may lead to azoospermia. However, the exact molecular mechanisms of autophagy pathway have remained largely obscure.
Our previous presurgical weight loss trial among 40 prostate cancer patients found that rapid (but not slow) weight loss resulted in increased tumor Ki67 and Cathepsin L (CTSL) gene expression. In follow-up analyses, we strove to better understand these unexpected findings.
Prostate cancer is a threat to men and usually occurs in aged males. Though prostate specific antigen level and Gleason score are utilized for evaluation of the prostate cancer in clinic, the biomarkers for this malignancy have not been widely recognized.
Cell division cycle 6 (CDC6) is an essential regulator of DNA replication and plays important roles in the activation and maintenance of the checkpoint mechanisms in the cell cycle. CDC6 has been associated with oncogenic activities in human cancers; however, the clinical significance of CDC6 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear.
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) represent a very small subpopulation of the cancer cells found in the bloodstream of patients in the metastatic phase of neoplastic disease. Due to the timeline of the disease, they are regarded as a negative prognostic marker.
Bladder urothelial carcinoma (BLCA) is a common malignancy with high heterogeneity. A reasonable molecular subtyping can facilitate biological study and personalized therapy of BLCA. In this study, unsupervised consensus clustering was used to acquire the molecular subtypes of BLCA based on messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) data.
Renal cell carcinomas (RCC) are heterogeneous and can be further classified into three major subtypes including clear cell, papillary and chromophobe. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is commonly hyperactive in many cancers and is associated with cancer cell proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis.
The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with solid tumors is associated with poor prognosis. However, there are limited data concerning the detection of CTCs in renal cell cancer (RCC).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role in and contribution of antioxidant enzymes to bladder cancer (BC) etiology and recurrence after transurethral resection (TUR). We enrolled 40 patients with BC who underwent TUR and 100 sex- and age-matched healthy controls.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic bladder dysfunction characterized as urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, and pelvic pain. The changes in urethra may wind up with the bladder changes in structure and functions, however, the functions of the urethra in IC remains elusive.
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) is a sex-biased cancer with a higher incidence in men but worse outcomes in women. The root cause behind these observations remains unclear. To investigate whether sex-specific tumor biology could explain the differences in clinical behavior of MIBC, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles from transurethral resected bladder tumors of 1000 patients.
Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer, and the second leading cause of cancer death in American men. RAD9 stabilizes the genome, but prostate cancer cells and tumors often have high quantities of the protein.
Development of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer is a result of the lack of an apoptotic response by the tumor cells and loss of the ability to stick to adjacent cells through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Identifying the subset of patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) at the highest risk of recurrence remains challenging, and better prognostic markers are needed. Gleason score is the best predictor of PCa aggressiveness and prognosis.
Genetic factors that influence inflammation and energy production/expenditure in cells may affect patient outcomes following treatment with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Sestrins, stress-inducible genes with antioxidant properties, have recently been implicated in several behaviors including fatigue.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common and the most aggressive histopathological subtype of kidney cancer, with patients exhibiting high mortality rates for metastatic tumors. The Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) pathway serves a crucial role in embryonic development.
Simultaneous use of cisplatin (CIS) and gemcitabine (GEN) for treating bladder cancer has increased because of their complementary effects. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the activities of these two antineoplastic drugs are not fully known.
A contribution of genetic factors to the development of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is broadly acknowledged. This study aimed to: (1) provide insight into the genetic pathogenesis of SUI by gathering and synthesizing the available data from studies evaluating differential gene expression in SUI patients and (2) identify possible novel therapeutic targets and leads.
Prognostic biomarkers are needed to distinguish patients with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa) who are at high risk of metastatic progression. The tumor transcriptome may reveal its aggressiveness potential and have utility for predicting adverse patient outcomes.
The ectopic expression of coagulation Factor VII has been shown in various cancers. Recently, F7 gene has been identified as a direct target of the androgen receptor in breast cancer. In this study, we examined the mRNA expression of F7 and AR in clinical sample series of prostate cancer and BPH.
Obese men are at higher risk of advanced prostate cancer and cancer-specific mortality; however, the biology underlying this association remains unclear. This study examined gene expression profiles of prostate tissue to identify biological processes differentially expressed by obesity status and lethal prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Gleason score (GS) is one of the best predictors of PCa aggressiveness, but additional tumor biomarkers may improve its prognostic accuracy.
To examine the trajectory of fatigue experienced by 26 Puerto Rican (PR) men over the course of External Beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and to assess gene expression changes from baseline to midpoint of EBRT using microarray technology.
Many etiological factors have been related to prostate cancer (CaP) development, progression, and survival, such as age, population origin, geographic area, occupational exposures, and nutrition and lifestyle factors.
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a common human malignancy. Despite numerous efforts, there is still no reliable biomarker or combination of biomarkers available for daily practice. Our study was designed to explore the expression profile of messenger RNA (mRNA) and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts in ccRCC in order to identify potential diagnostic biomarkers for patients with ccRCC.
Many studies link the development of androgen-related disorders to the overexpression of two proteins, 5α-reductase and androgen receptor (AR). In this commentary, we use microcompetition to explain how common latent viruses can cause transcription factor deficiency, overexpression of 5α-reductase and AR, and male-pattern baldness.
Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the second most common renal cell carcinoma (RCC) that can be further subdivided into type 1 (PRCC1) and type 2 (PRCC2) RCCs based on histological and genetic features.
Our previous high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry study identified bladder cancer (BCA)-specific urine metabolites, including carnitine, acylcarnitines, and melatonin.
MicroRNAs play an important role as modulators of gene expression in several biological processes and are closely related to development and cell differentiation regulation. Previous works have revealed a potential predictive role for miRNAs in different tumor types.
MicroRNAs (miRs) are short noncoding RNA molecules that regulate expression of target mRNAs. Many published sources provide information about miRs and their targets. However, bioinformatic tools elucidating higher level impact of the established total miR profiles, are still largely missing.
Gleason scores (GS) 3+3 and 3+4 prostate cancers (PCa) differ greatly in their clinical courses, with Gleason pattern (GP) 4 representing a major independent risk factor for cancer progression. However, Gleason grade is not reliably ascertained by diagnostic biopsy, largely due to sampling inadequacies, subjectivity in the Gleason grading procedure, and a lack of more objective biomarker assays to stratify prostate cancer aggressiveness.
Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic bladder inflammation that leads to chronic bladder pain and urinary urgency and frequency. The presentation of IC/PBS is heterogeneous, and it is classified as ulcerative IC/PBS and nonulcerative IC/PBS.
We systematically characterized gene expression, inflammation and neovascularization in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome to obtain biological evidence supporting diagnosis and classification.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays essential roles in the regulation of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis, cell sizing and metabolism in both normal and pathological growing conditions.
Whereas VHL inactivation is a primary event in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), the precise mechanism(s) of how this interacts with the secondary mutations in tumor suppressor genes, including PBRM1, KDM5C/JARID1C, SETD2, and/orBAP1, remains unclear.
PSA testing results in unnecessary biopsy and over-diagnosis with consequent over-treatment. Tissue biopsy is an invasive procedure, associated with significant morbidity. More accurate non- or minimum-invasive diagnostic approaches should be developed to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy and over-diagnosis.
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic syndrome that affects the urinary bladder. The etiology of this disease is unclear, and no effective therapies are available at this time. Although inflammation is suspected, no clear evidence for a role of conventional mediators of inflammation, such as cytokines and their downstream molecules, has been obtained to date.
Overexpression of cripto-1 (CR-1), an epidermal growth factor-cripto-1/FRL-1/Cryptic family protein, has been reported in multiple types of malignancy. However, the clinical functions of CR-1 in prostate cancer (PCa) remain largely unclear.
Reactive Oxygen Species Modulator 1 (ROMO1) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial structure integrity, and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increased ROMO1 expression was reported in various cancer cell lines; however, the possible association between ROMO1 expression and bladder cancer was not well studied.
Accurate risk stratification of men with a clinical suspicion of prostate cancer (cSPCa) remains challenging despite the increasing use of MRI.
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a unique biparametric MRI protocol (IMPROD bpMRI) combined with clinical and molecular markers in men with cSPCa.
High-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HG-NMIBC) is a clinically unpredictable disease with greater risks of recurrence and progression relative to their low-intermediate-grade counterparts.
Purpose: Most prostate cancers (PCs) initially respond to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), but eventually many PC patients develop castration resistant PC (CRPC). Currently, available drugs that have been approved for the treatment of CRPC patients are limited.
To identify signature genes for the pathogenesis of cancer, which provides a theoretical support for prevention and early diagnosis of cancer. The pattern recognition method was used to analyze the genome-wide gene expression data, which was collected from the The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.
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