CTLA-4 Articles


  • Blocking immune checkpoints in prostate, kidney, and urothelial cancer: An overview.

    Despite a long history of immunotherapeutic approaches to treatment, most genitourinary malignancies are not cured by existing immunotherapy regimens. More recently, cell surface molecules known as immune checkpoints have become the focus of efforts to develop more effective immunotherapies.

    Published March 9, 2016
  • Current Status and Future Direction of Immunotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma.

    Since 2016, five new programmed cell death protein 1/ligand 1 (PD-1/L1) checkpoint inhibitors have been approved for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. This review will summarize the data supporting the widespread use of these agents and highlight areas of ongoing clinical development.

    Published March 24, 2019
  • Current Status and Future Directions of Immunotherapy in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was recognized as an immunologically sensitive cancer over 30 years ago. The first therapies to affect the course of RCC were cytokines (interferon alfa-2B and interleukin-2).

    Published March 12, 2019
  • Emerging first line treatment options for bladder cancer: A review of phase II and III therapies in the pipeline.

    The treatment of urothelial carcinoma (UC) had remained unchanged for several years until the recent FDA approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) in the salvage setting. Novel dual CPI-CPI and CPI-chemotherapy combinations are now being investigated aggressively as first line therapy for metastatic disease.

    Published December 14, 2017
  • Emerging role of immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma-Advanced disease.

    Systemic therapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma has seen minimal progress and no new approved therapies in the past 20 years. However, with the approval of the checkpoint inhibitor atezolizumab in May 2016, immunotherapy inserted itself into the standard clinical dogma.

    Published November 29, 2016
  • Expression of PD-1 and CTLA-4 Are Negative Prognostic Markers in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Immuno-oncological therapy with checkpoint inhibition (CI) has become a new standard treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but the prognostic value of the expression of CI therapy target molecules is still controversial.

    Published June 19, 2019
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors and Prostate Cancer: A New Frontier?

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), agents that provide durable disease control and long-term survival are still needed. It is a fact that a tumor-induced immunosuppressive status (mediated by aberrant activation of inhibitory immune checkpoint pathways as a mechanism to evade host immune surveillance) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of cancer, including prostate cancer (PC), making CRPC patients suitable candidates for immunotherapy.

    Published August 3, 2016
  • Immune checkpoint inhibitors in urothelial cancer: recent updates and future outlook.

    Bladder cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the US and most tumors have urothelial (transitional cell) histology. Platinum-based chemotherapy has long been the standard of care in advanced disease, but long-term outcomes have largely remained poor.

    Published June 21, 2018
  • Immunophenotypes Based on the Tumor Immune Microenvironment Allow for Unsupervised Penile Cancer Patient Stratification.

    The tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) plays an important role in penile squamous cell carcinoma (peSCC) pathogenesis. Here, the immunophenotype of the TIME in peSCC was determined by integrating the expression patterns of immune checkpoints (programmed cell death-1 (PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), and Siglec-15) and the components of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, including CD8+ or Granzyme B+ T cells, FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, and CD68+ or CD206+ macrophages, in 178 patients.

    Published July 14, 2020
  • Immunotherapy advances in uro-genital malignancies.

    Immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has made significant progresses over the last 20 years. Multiple efforts have been attempted to restore immune-mediated tumor elimination, leading to the development of several targeted immunotherapies.

    Published July 4, 2016
  • Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies.

    Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents.

    Published May 1, 2017
  • Immunotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Teaching an Old Dog New Tricks.

    Immunotherapy is rapidly transforming cancer care across a range of tumor types. Although Sipuleucel-T represented the first successful vaccine for the treatment of established cancer, other immunotherapeutic approaches for prostate cancer such as checkpoint inhibitors have been relatively disappointing to date.

    Published August 19, 2018
  • Ipilimumab in combination with nivolumab for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a highly immunogenic neoplasm, and cytokine-based immunotherapies have been used for decades with limited success. In recent years, antibody-based immunotherapies targeting immune checkpoint receptors PD-1 and CTLA-4 have demonstrated clinical efficacy in metastatic RCC (mRCC) patients, leading to regulatory approval of the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab in treatment-naïve patients with intermediate- or poor-risk disease in April 2018.

    Published September 5, 2018
  • Is the Genetic Background of Co-Stimulatory CD28/CTLA-4 Pathway the Risk Factor for Prostate Cancer?

    The impairment of immunological surveillance caused by aberrant T cell activation can lead to an inadequate anti-tumor response. Therefore, deregulation in co-stimulatory pathway might be associated with cancer susceptibility.

    Published January 26, 2017
  • Myasthenia gravis: An emerging toxicity of immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    The advent of immunotherapy has heralded a number of significant advances in the treatment of particular malignancies associated with poor prognosis (melanoma, non-small-cell lung, renal and head/neck cancers).

    Published July 5, 2017
  • Prevalence of hypophysitis in a cohort of patients with metastatic melanoma and prostate cancer treated with ipilimumab.

    Ipilimumab is a human monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4, that has been shown to significantly improve survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. Blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 elicits T cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor response, but can also trigger immune-related adverse events.

    Published April 21, 2017
  • Progress Toward Identifying Exact Proxies for Predicting Response to Immunotherapies.

    Clinical value and utility of checkpoint inhibitors, a drug class targeting adaptive immune suppression pathways (PD-1, PDL-1, and CTLA-4), is growing rapidly and maintains status of a landmark achievement in oncology.

    Published April 14, 2020
  • Prostate cancer immunotherapy - Abstract

    Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Smith 353, Boston, MA, 02215, United States.

    Published July 13, 2011
  • Role of Checkpoint Inhibition in Localized Bladder Cancer.

    Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) are established as a standard therapy option for metastatic bladder cancer; however, their role in earlier-stage disease remains undefined.

    To summarize the preclinical and clinical evidence forming the rationale for multiple ongoing investigations of CPIs in patients with localized bladder cancer defined by non-muscle-invasive or muscle-invasive stages.

    Published May 30, 2019
  • Systemic therapy for bladder cancer finally comes into a new age.

    Systemic therapy for bladder cancer, both localized muscle-invasive disease and metastatic disease, has seen minimal progress over the past two decades. Current approaches rely upon cytotoxic chemotherapy combinations aimed at increasing cure rates or achieving palliation and disease control, but these regimens are fraught with short- and long-term toxicities and outcomes remain suboptimal.

    Published July 28, 2016
  • The evolving landscape of immunotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    Prostate cancer exists in a clinical continuum of hormone-sensitive to castration-resistant disease. Despite the use of chemotherapy and androgen synthesis inhibitors in the castration-resistant setting, this remains a lethal disease.

    Published June 10, 2019
  • The immunotherapy revolution in genitourinary malignancies.

    Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy and therapeutic cancer vaccines have continued to demonstrate survival benefit and durable clinical response in patients with renal cell cancer, prostate cancer and bladder cancer, with limited responses in testicular cancer.

    Published July 7, 2020
  • The need for immune biomarkers for treatment prognosis and response in genitourinary malignancies.

    Immune biomarkers encompass a wide range of blood-borne and cell-associated molecules whose detection or expression may change in response to an immune therapy. These immune therapies encompass a range of platforms including autologous cellular products, in other words, dendritic cells, prime boost DNA vaccines, chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and checkpoint inhibitors.

    Published December 8, 2017