In March 2015, the first Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCC) took place in St. Gallen. 41 experts from 17 countries reviewed important areas of controversy in advanced hormone-naive and castration-resistant prostate cancer and gave therapy recommendations.
With 1.3 million new cases in 2018 worldwide, prostate cancer remains a challenge. Development of novel therapies targeting the androgen pathway followed recognition of the continued importance of androgens in castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
In PTEN-loss models, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and androgen receptor signaling pathways cross-regulate by reciprocal feedback whereby inhibition of one activates the other, creating a rationale for co-targeting.
Baseline clinical variables are prognostic for overall survival (OS) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Their prognostic and predictive value with agents targeting bone metastases, such as radium-223, is not established.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate gland that is frequently found in aging men. Androgens are essential for the development and differentiated function of the prostate, as well as for proliferation and survival of prostatic cells.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common and heritable human cancers. Our aim was to find germline biomarkers that can predict disease outcome. We previously detected predisposing signals at 2q37, the location of the prostate specific ANO7 gene.
Androgen receptor (AR) signalling remains critically important in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) as confirmed by recent phase III trials, showing a survival advantage for abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide (MDV3100).
Epigenetic factors play critical roles in prostate cancer (PCa) development. However, how they contribute to neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) and castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) is not fully understood.
A recent publication in Science demonstrates the ability of prostate cancer cells to switch lineages from one that is dependent on androgen signaling to a cell type that is not. Known as lineage plasticity, this phenomenon is driven by the transcription factor SOX2 in RB1 and TP53-deficient prostate cancer.
BACKGROUND - The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion is detected in approximately half of primary prostate cancers (PCa) yet the prognostic significance remains unclear. We hypothesized that ERG promotes the expression of common genes in primary PCa and metastatic castration-resistant PCa (CRPC), with the objective of identifying ERG-associated pathways, which may promote the transition from primary PCa to CRPC.
This multicenter, retrospective, 'field-practice' study investigated treatment outcomes of ongoing abiraterone therapy with the addition of radiotherapy (RT) - initiated for oligoprogression or with a palliative intent.
To review the current literature and discuss potential future roles of the novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracers targeting the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
The presence of androgen receptor variant 7 (AR-V7) variants becomes a significant hallmark of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) relapsed from hormonal therapy and is associated with poor survival of CRPC patients because of lacking a ligand-binding domain.
Neutropenia is a major adverse event of docetaxel-based chemotherapy. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the incidence of neutropenia and to develop a nomogram for predicting Grade 4 neutropenia during the first cycle of docetaxel-based chemotherapy in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
BMS-641988 (23) is a novel, nonsteroidal androgen receptor antagonist designed for the treatment of prostate cancer. The compound has high binding affinity for the AR and acts as a functional antagonist in vitro.
The discovery, isolation, elucidation of structure, synthesis, and initial testing of the neuropeptide hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), which regulates reproduction, is briefly described.
Recent trends in cancer therapy have begun emphasizing the use of precision medicine, especially genetic tools, in the evaluation of malignancies and decision-making. Prostate cancer is a malignancy where the benefits and utility of screening and early treatment are still heavily controversial.
Management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has changed markedly over the last decade with major shifts in the treatment paradigm, although ultimately still will progress despite currently available therapies.
During the last few years, the therapeutic armamentarium of castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) has been enriched with the introduction of new effective therapies with proved survival benefit and quality of life gain, including cabazitaxel, abiraterone, enzalutamide, and Radium-223.
Although recent advances in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have significantly improved patient outcomes, advanced prostate cancer is still associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients who develop resistance after multiple lines of therapy.
The androgen receptor (AR) is the classical target for prostate cancer prevention and treatment, but more recently estrogens and their receptors have also been implicated in prostate cancer development and tumor progression.
Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The observed variability in progression and responses to the same treatment between patients underlie the genetic heterogeneity of the disease.
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy in urinary system and brings heavy burdens in men. We downloaded gene expression profile of mRNA and related clinical data of GSE70768 data set from public database.
The current study aims to provide an assessment of the impact of diabetes mellitus and its metformin treatment on the outcomes of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) within a pooled dataset of 3 clinical trials.
Antiandrogen withdrawal syndrome (AAWS), manifested as a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline after discontinuation of a first-generation antiandrogen has been well characterized. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of AAWS with enzalutamide in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
To investigate whether IL-6 signaling affects the susceptibility of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells to cytotoxic action of natural killer (NK) cells, CRPC cell lines (having different IL-6 level) were developed by lentiviral transduction.
The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in patients who have undergone androgen deprivation therapy are not fully understood. This is the first study to address whether β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2)- mediated signaling may affect CRPC progression in vivo.
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is commonly given to men with prostate cancer. Both its benefits as well as its adverse effects are a direct consequence of sex steroid withdrawal. While ADT improves oncologic outcomes in appropriately selected men, it is associated with adverse effects, including accelerated bone loss leading to increased fracture risk, and with metabolically unfavorable body composition changes that predispose to diabetes and may increase cardiovascular risk.
Herein, we report the clinical outcomes of a multicenter study evaluating the role of SBRT in a cohort of patients affected by oligoprogressive castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
This is a retrospective multicenter observational study including eleven centers.
With almost 30,000 deaths per year, prostate cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has been the corner stone of prostate cancer treatment for decades.
DNA repair mutations (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are found in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old male patient with metastatic CRPC along with BRCA2 and PTEN mutations.
We screened cell division associated 1 (CDCA1) as an oncogene that is overexpressed on several cancers, including prostate cancer. We also identified a highly immunogenic HLA-A*2402-restricted epitope peptide corresponding to part of the CDCA1 protein.
Prostate cancer (PCa) shows a broad spectrum of biological and clinical behavior, which represents the epiphenomenon of an extreme genetic heterogeneity. Recent genomic profiling studies have deeply improved the knowledge of the genomic landscape of localized and metastatic PCa.
Low detection rate of conventional imaging and unspecific fluctuations of PSA can hamper early diagnosis of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We thus assessed the value of PSMA-PET/CT in the detection of early CRPC (PSA ≤3 ng/mL).
In this review, we aim to describe racial differences in response to treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC).
Recent data suggests that, despite higher risk features, African Americans may respond better than Caucasians to systemic therapies for advanced prostate cancer.
In the phase III ALSYMPCA trial, metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients had few prior life-prolonging therapies. Following ALSYMPCA, which demonstrated radium-223 survival benefit, and before radium-223 U.
Although there have been great advances in mechanisms and therapeutic methods of prostate cancer, the mortality rate of prostate cancer remains high. The castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which develops from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, foreshadows a more dismal outcome.
Currently, there are two Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs for androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients: abiraterone and enzalutamide.
There has been no established clinical evidence for using sequential treatment in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Despite evident cross-resistance, androgen receptor axis-targeted agents (ARTAs), namely abiraterone (ABI) and enzalutamide (ENZ), are often used sequentially owing to less toxicity compared with chemotherapy.
Our aim was to evaluate the usefulness of serum testosterone to guide treatment decision for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
We conducted a retrospective analysis of 115 patients with CRPC treated with either abiraterone (n = 43) or enzalutamide (n = 72).
After a high-throughput screening campaign identified thioether 1 as an antagonist of the nuclear androgen receptor, a zone model was developed for structure-activity relationship (SAR) purposes and analogues were synthesized and evaluated in a cell-based luciferase assay.
Background: A systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) based on neutrophil (N), lymphocyte (L), and platelet (P) counts has shown a prognostic impact in several solid tumors. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prognostic role of SII in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone post docetaxel.
To evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma systemic immune-inflammation index (SII), albumin, and fibrinogen levels in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with first-line docetaxel and to screen out the patients with the greatest risk for poor prognosis.
Aerobic glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect, is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. We recently reported that the hexokinase 2 (HK2)-mediated Warburg effect is required for castration-resistant prostate cancer that is driven by Pten/p53 deficiency, suggesting that HK2 might be a therapeutic target for prostate cancer patients carrying PTEN and p53 mutations.
The cardiovascular toxicity related to abiraterone and enzalutamide has been previously studied by our group. In this analysis, we aim to update our previous findings related to abiraterone and enzalutamide, including the new available evidence, both in castration-resistant and hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.
Recent transcriptome studies using next-generation sequencing have detected aberrant changes in the expression of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) associated with cancer. For prostate cancer, the expression levels of ncRNAs including microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs are strongly associated with diagnosis, carcinogenesis and tumor growth.
New hormonal agents are available for treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We aim to define the incidence and relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular events in mCRPC patients treated with these agents.
Although various mechanisms of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have been discovered, reliable biomarkers for monitoring CRPC progression are lacking. We sought to identify molecules that predict the progression of advanced prostate cancer (AdvPC) into CRPC.
The therapeutic landscape of prostate cancer has been transformed over the last decade by new therapeutics, advanced functional imaging, next-generation sequencing, and better use of existing therapies in early-stage disease.
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