Therapeutic interventions for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) center on inhibiting androgen receptor (AR) and downstream signaling pathways. Resistance to androgen deprivation therapy and/or AR antagonists is inevitable and molecular mechanisms driving castration-resistant PCa (CR-PCa) primarily involve alterations in AR expression and activity.
INTRODUCTION - Based on extensive preclinical data and abundant evidence for clinical activity, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors are currently standard of care for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Axitinib is one of the most selective molecules in the class of anti-angiogenic agents, which confers an optimal profile between its safety and anti-cancer activity spectrum.
An indwelling urinary (Foley) catheter may be used in the management of various urological conditions, such as intractable incontinence and urinary retention, or as part of treatment regimens such as chemotherapy.
Accumulating evidence shows that clinical factors alone are not adequate for predicting the survival of patients with urothelial bladder cancer (UBC), and many genes have been found to be associated with UBC prognosis.
Prostate cancer is a highly prevalent form of cancer that is usually slow-developing and benign. Due to its high prevalence, it is, however, still the second most common cause of death by cancer in men in the West.
The insertion of an indwelling urethral urinary catheter is an invasive procedure that is commonly undertaken in healthcare settings. However, there are several risks and potential complications associated with these devices, so their use should be avoided where possible.
The approval of 223Ra dichloride (223RaCl2) in 2013 was a principal event in introducing targeted α-therapy as a form of safe and effective management strategy in cancer. There is an increasing interest in research and development of new targeted α-therapy agents spearheaded by advancements in cancer biology, radiochemistry, and availability of clinically relevant α particles.
Infertility affects 7-12% of men and its etiology is unknown in half of cases. To fill this gap, use of the male genital tract colour-Doppler ultrasound (MGT-CDUS) has progressively expanded. However, MGT-CDUS still suffers from lack of standardization.
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