We investigated whether the concept of oligometastasis may be introduced to the clinical management of metastatic bladder cancer patients. Our study population comprised 128 patients diagnosed with metastatic bladder cancer after total cystectomy at our 6 institutions between 2004 and 2014.
Published February 2, 2018
Abiraterone is an agent effective for castration-resistant prostate cancer, but there have been no reports of cardiotoxic effects inducing cardiomyopathy, to our knowledge. We present a case of an 86-year-old man with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with abiraterone.
Published September 12, 2018
Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in American men and mostly affects men above age 65.  The American Cancer Society predicts 161,360 new cases of prostate cancer and 26,730 deaths from prostate cancer in the United States in the year 2017.  Although fewer than 10% of people are diagnosed with de novo metastatic disease, many men with early stage prostate cancer will eventually develop metastatic disease. The initial treatment of metastatic disease is androgen deprivation therapy, but this is only effective for a few years, after which the disease continues to progress. At this point it is referred to as metastatic castrate resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). About 10-20% of people are diagnosed with mCRPC within 5 years of a diagnosis of prostate cancer, but more than 50% of patients with mCRPC die within 3 years.  mCRPC is currently defined as the progression of the prostate cancer despite castrate levels of testosterone (usually defined as <1.7nmol/L).  Progression to mCRPC is typically associated with worsening symptoms, declining quality of life and worsening pain. However, mCRPC may be helped by other forms of hormone therapy such as the androgen receptor axis-targeted (ARAT) agents Abiraterone and Enzalutamide because it is not completely hormone-refractory.  Patients who become resistant to ARAT therapy usually are considered for chemotherapy.  In 2004, docetaxel became the standard of care for mCRPC. Later, cabazitaxel was also found to be beneficial in patients with mCRPC that progressed after receiving docetaxel therapy. 
Chemotherapy remains the treatment of choice in symptomatic mCRPC, but survival benefits after undergoing chemotherapy are modest (on the order of a few months). In comparison to mitoxantrone (the prior standard chemotherapy agent), docetaxel was associated with better pain control, quality of life and more frequent PSA responses.  However, chemotherapy can also be associated with significant toxicity, with 18-44% rates of grade 3 or higher toxicity. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events defines grade 3 as severe, grade 4 as life-threatening or disability and grade 5 as death.  Common toxicities from chemotherapy include neutropenia, generalized weakness, bone pain, fatigue, peripheral edema and mucositis. The most common grade 3 to 5 toxicities with docetaxel are: neutropenia, leucopenia, anemia, fatigue, infection and dehydration. 
Currently, there is a need to find tools that can help identify men who may be more or less likely to experience serious toxicity from chemotherapy because it could help during treatment decision-making. Predicting toxicities would help doctors determine the side effects and toxicities that specific patients might develop before prescribing the treatment. This way, it would make it easier for them to determine which treatment method would work, at which dose and method of delivery. Making a more informed decision can be important in this setting because of the increased risk of death or functional decline. It is especially helpful to be able to predict these toxicities in older adults because the risk of toxicity increases with age. In practice, chemotherapy is less likely to be given to older adults due to the concerns about their ability to tolerate it.  Many older adults tend to place an increasing value on avoiding treatments that adversely affect their quality of life or functional independence.  Since older adults have a higher risk of toxicity and place an increasing importance on quality of life, oncologists may find it harder to suggest the best treatment option. Hence, it would be useful to be able to predict toxicities from chemotherapy. This advancement in toxicity prediction would also help select up-front treatment modifications such as dose reduction or the addition of colony-stimulating factors to reduce toxicity.
Tools such as the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) Performance Status (PS) 5-point scale are currently used to determine risk by assessing a patient’s level of function and capability to perform self-care. Although this tool is a prognostic factor for survival and may help select which patients should not get chemotherapy, it is a poor predictor of toxicity risk because it is subjective, being subject to bias and high interobserver variability.  Oncologist judgement in stratifying patients into those at lower or higher risk of toxicity may be better, but it has rarely been formally compared against measures such as the ECOG PS. Finally, the agreement between currently used tools such as PS and clinical judgement by oncologists is still quite low. 
Our study sought to identify tools that could help inform treatment decision-making by improving the ability to predict a patient’s risk of chemotherapy toxicity. Distinguishing men at lower and higher risk of severe toxicity in men with mCRPC would help make better treatment decisions and allow a more informed decision about the risks and benefits of chemotherapy. In patients with very high risks of toxicity that may counterbalance any perceived benefits, there are four main options besides conventional dose chemotherapy: (a) reduced-dose chemotherapy; (b) use of colony-stimulating factors to reduce neutropenia and related complications; (c) alternative, gentler agents or clinical trials of novel therapies; (d) best supportive care. While our study did not focus on which treatment might be best, we sought to validate the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) and Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG) tool in mCRPC with the goal of helping a clinician’s judgment.
The VES-13 is a brief (3-4 minutes), self-report tool that measures vulnerability. The initial purpose of developing this tool was to better screen older persons at risk of health deterioration.  In the original study, vulnerable older people were defined as persons age 65 and older who were at increased risk of functional decline or death over 2 years.  The instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and activities of daily living (ADLs) that the VES-13 focuses on include shopping, performing light housework, managing finances, preparing meals, using the telephone, bathing, dressing, transferring, toileting, walking across the room, and eating.  However, its ability to predict grade 3-5 chemotherapy toxicity has yet to be studied.
The CARG tool uses a combination of 11 parameters, including age, tumor and treatment characteristics, laboratory data, and specific geriatric assessment parameters to help predict grade 3-5 chemotherapy toxicity in older patients with cancer. It categorizes people into low, intermediate and high risk of severe chemotherapy toxicity, in our case grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity. It does include a geriatric assessment questionnaire with 6 domains: functional status, co-morbidity, psychological state, social activity, social support, and nutrition. The purpose of developing the CARG tool was to identify risk factors for chemotherapy toxicity in older adults undergoing various chemotherapy regimens and create a user-friendly risk stratification schema for chemotherapy toxicity.  The CARG tool was derived from a study of 500 patients undergoing a variety of chemotherapy regimens for various solid tumors. The CARG tool was recently validated externally  and helps to identify patients at greatest risk of chemotherapy toxicity. Although the CARG tool has been proven in a mixed cohort of patients with various cancers, there are no validation data for patients with mCRPC, and only 10% of the patients in the original study had genitourinary cancers.  Since different chemotherapy regimens have different toxicity risks, it is important to validate such tools in a more homogeneous cohort to ensure findings are similar to mixed cohorts.
For our study, we had each patient’s medical oncologist rate the patient’s risk of chemotherapy toxicity on a 10-point scale. “Oncologists are left with little guidance when it comes to identifying risk factors other than chronologic age or performance status, neither of which has been shown to predict well in heterogeneous older adult populations.” 
We recruited men aged 65 or older with mCRPC who were starting either first-line chemotherapy (receiving chemotherapy for the first time) or second-line chemotherapy (stopped first-line chemotherapy because of disease progression, toxicity, or other reasons). All but two (4%) participants received docetaxel-based chemotherapy, and the majority (n=29, 63%) received the standard dose of 75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks. Ten (22%) received a dose of 60 mg/m2, whereas 5 (11%) received a lower dose than this. Subjects were recruited either prior to starting chemotherapy or within the first two cycles as long as there was no dose reduction. Men unable to come for study visits or with a life expectancy of less than 3 months, a major neuropsychiatric abnormality, or limited English were excluded from the study.
We collected socio-demographic and medical information on all subjects at baseline, as well as physical performance measures (grip strength, timed up and go, and timed chair stands). The CARG and VES-13 tools were administered as well. The CARG toxicity prediction model was used to stratify patients into three groups (low, intermediate, and high risk) based on risk for grade 3+ chemotherapy toxicity. The VES-13 was used to measure vulnerability, which was defined by a score of 3 or greater. This cut-off point follows the conventional scoring system, but we also examined cut-offs of 2 or greater and 4 or greater. We also asked each subject’s treating physician to provide an estimate of the risk of chemotherapy toxicity on a scale from 1 (lowest risk) to 10 (highest risk). Oncologists were not told the results of the other assessment tools used in the study.
Following the baseline visit, follow-up assessments were performed after each cycle of chemotherapy (every 3 weeks) and after the final cycle. At each visit, a trained research coordinator recorded chemotherapy-related toxicities using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 (NCI CTCAE v4). Laboratory-based toxicities such as neutropenia were based on blood tests performed every three weeks. These same procedures were followed to record toxicity for men who were recruited after already having started chemotherapy, including for cycles administered before being enrolled on the study.
Sample sizes were based on the assumption that we would see the same rate of toxicity as in the original CARG study (i.e. 30% risk of grade 3+ toxicity for the low risk group, 52% for intermediate, and 83% for high)  and that equal proportions of patients would be enrolled in each risk group (i.e. one-third for each). Based on these assumptions, we calculated that we would require 45 patients.
46 men were recruited for the study with a mean age of 75. These participants had a median PSA level at baseline of 243.7 ng/mL and had relatively few other major medical problems (median Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 0). Although participants had a fairly high performance status (mean Karnofsky score of 77%), 50% were considered vulnerable based on the VES-13. Based on the CARG tool, only 2 (4%) patients were considered low risk, 29 (63%) were intermediate, and 15 (33%) were high risk of severe chemotherapy toxicity.
Grade 3+ and grade 2 chemotherapy toxicity were experienced by 20% and 67% of patients, respectively. The most common grade 3-5 toxicities were neutropenia (30%), generalized weakness (23%), and bone pain (15%), and the most common grade 2 toxicities were fatigue (35%), peripheral edema (7%), and mucositis (7%).
Grade 3+ toxicity was observed in 0 (0%), 5 (17%) and 4 (27%) patients in low, intermediate, and high CARG risk groups respectively, suggesting an incremental pattern across risk groups. However, this pattern was not statistically significant (p = 0.65). 22% of patients considered vulnerable by the VES-13 experienced grade 3+ toxicity, compared to 17% of patients considered non-vulnerable (p = 0.71). Age, comorbidity, Karnofsky performance score, and baseline physical performance measures did not seem to be predictors of grade 3+ toxicity. In addition, oncologist judgment of toxicity risk was a relatively poor predictor of actual toxicity.
The ability of the CARG tool to predict grade 2 toxicity appeared to be higher than the ability of the VES-13 to predict these toxicities, but this was not statistically significant, likely due to our small sample size (p = 0.072 for CARG, 0.75 for VES-13). Limiting the analyses to only those participants who were recruited prior to starting chemotherapy did not alter the findings.
The rates of grade 3+ toxicity found in our cohort were relatively low overall: only 20% compared to the 53% observed in the original CARG study. The same pattern was found in the three individual risk groups, with lower rates of toxicities observed in each compared to the original CARG study. However, the rate of toxicity in our cohort was similar to rates reported in other studies of older men with mCRPC. For example, the TAX327 trial by Tannock et al. reported severe adverse events in 26% of subjects, and grade 3+ neutropenia in 32%. 
Although we did not find statistically significant results for either of the tools tested, we did observe three key findings in our study. First, the risk of grade 3+ toxicity with docetaxel-based chemotherapy in the mCRPC population is lower overall and across CARG risk groups compared to the rates observed in the original study, which used data from patients with a variety of cancers. However, we still found that there was a gradient of toxicity risk across the different CARG risk groups (i.e. 0% in low, 17% in moderate, and 27% in the high risk group). Therefore, there is a need for further validation studies conducted with older men with mCRPC.
Second, our data on the performance of the VES-13 are the first in this population. Even though our findings were negative, we believe they warrant further investigation because of the ease of use and emerging value of the VES-13 in other geriatric oncology settings (e.g. 12). Third, we also provided the first data looking at oncologist judgment of toxicity risk, and compared that to the CARG and VES-13 tools. For tools to be useful in a busy clinical setting, they must provide better predictive ability than the usual clinical care. Therefore, further investigation in this area is important.
Some other limitations include the fact that we conducted our study at a single academic cancer center, limiting generalizability, and did not use the CRASH tool, another popular tool for predicting toxicities.  Future studies should directly compare the CRASH and CARG tools in the mCRPC setting. Lastly, the 10-point rating scale we used for oncologist predictions has not been validated in this context, and we did not provide any numerical anchors. Therefore, the different ratings may have meant different things to different oncologists. Further investigation is warranted in these areas.
In summary, toxicity with docetaxel in a cohort of older men in usual clinical practice was lower than predicted by the CARG tool. Although the CARG tool appeared to differentiate those at lower versus higher risk of chemotherapy toxicity and was better than clinician judgement or ECOG PS, a larger validation study is needed.
Written By: Thavalis Ja, Rathore Ma, Breunis Ha, Alibhai SMHa,b,c
a. Department of Medicine, University Health Network
b. Department of Medicine, University of Toronto
c. Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, University of Toronto
Read the Abstract
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Published June 1, 2017
A 77-year-old-male patient presented with recurrent gross hematuria for 3 months with a fever for 1 month, and so was admitted to The First Hospital of Tsinghua University. The medical history revealed the patient exhibited no symptoms of night sweat, dysuria, or abdominal pain.
Published August 28, 2018
The purpose of this amendment is to incorporate relevant newly-published literature to better provide a rational basis for the management of patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
Published November 6, 2015
Standard therapy for muscle invasive bladder cancer includes neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy with urinary diversion. Three decades of interest in primary radiation and chemotherapy for bladder preservation have yielded mature that deserve closer examination.
Published May 6, 2016
AIMS - There have been three randomised trials investigating docetaxel in combination with androgen deprivation therapy as first-line therapy for hormone-sensitive metastatic and locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer.
Published February 19, 2016
BACKGROUND - Radium-223 prolongs overall survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and symptomatic bone metastases, regardless of prior docetaxel. Whether or not chemotherapy can be safely administered following radium-223 treatment is of clinical importance.
Published March 29, 2016
To assess clinicopathological data and oncological outcomes focused on metastatic testicular cancer patients, who received chemotherapy as the initial treatment, in the nationwide multi-institutional study by the Cancer Registration Committee of the Japanese Urological Association.
Published August 18, 2018
In the last 25 years, there has been an improved understanding of the pathogenesis of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). Development of new treatment strategies has followed. We have progressed from the awareness of the efficacy of platinum compounds, especially cisplatin, as single agents to the development of effective drug combinations with greater attention in improving safety profiles while impacting on survival.
Published January 29, 2016
BACKGROUND - In elderly patients affected by metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) chemotherapic treatment may be the choice if one considers not only the chronological age, but also the clinical status, the functional reserve, and the vulnerability of patients.
Published March 30, 2016
The treatment landscape for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is evolving, with recent approvals of immune therapy, novel hormonal therapy, and bone-targeted therapy.
Published November 24, 2016
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy regimens are the backbone of chemotherapy for germ cell testicular cancer. Cisplatin is administered for five days, causing an overlap of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).
Published March 20, 2018
We sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of gemcitabine, cisplatin, and lapatinib (GCL) as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) planned for radical cystectomy.
Published December 9, 2015
Small cell carcinoma of the bladder (SCCB) is a kind of rare and highly aggressive tumor that is present in an advanced stage and has a propensity for early metastasis. The main presenting symptom of SCCB is hematuria.
Published February 3, 2017
To determine the characteristics of testicular germ cell tumors in older patients.
A testicular cancer survey was carried out by the Japanese Urological Association in 2011 to register the testicular cancers diagnosed in 2005 and 2008.
Published December 23, 2016
Cisplatin-based chemotherapy has been commonly used as the first-line chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial carcinoma. However, after failure of the first-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy, there is no established standard second-line chemotherapy.
Published June 23, 2016
Purpose: We performed a study-level meta-analysis to summarize the current evidence on the correlation between pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios (NLR) and oncological outcomes in each type of management for urothelial carcinoma.
Published January 13, 2020
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) replaced early intravesical chemotherapeutic agents as the standard of care for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with its US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1990.
Published July 24, 2018
Despite established androgen receptor (AR) antagonists, AR/AR-variants signaling remain a major obstacle for the successful treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In addition, CRPC cells adapt to survive via AR-independent pathways to escape next generation therapies.
Published May 26, 2016
Background: About 75% of newly diagnosed bladder cancer cases suffer from non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), which used to recur and progress despite transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT).
Published April 3, 2019
The regional lymph node-positive bladder cancer was classified as stage IV in the AJCC 7th edition but was changed to stage IIIB in the 8th edition, revised in 2018. Among the various studies involving immune checkpoint inhibitors, groups that had only lymph node metastasis showed better outcomes than those with distant metastasis.
Published August 1, 2019
Patients with clinically node-positive bladder cancer were historically considered to have uniformly poor prognosis and were frequently treated with palliative chemotherapy (CHT) only. Although retrospective data show that long-term survival with combined treatment (surgery + CHT) is possible in one-third of these patients, consensus on a treatment algorithm is still lacking.
Published May 20, 2019
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of second-line chemotherapy regimens with docetaxel and gemcitabine (GD), or paclitaxel and gemcitabine (GP) for advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) that did not respond to first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.
Published May 31, 2018
Although radical cystectomy (RC) is considered as the standard therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), trimodal therapy (TMT) combining transurethral resection of the tumor with radiotherapy and chemotherapy is increasingly recommended as an alternative approach for bladder preservation.
Published October 12, 2017
High-risk upper tract urothelial carcinoma has been associated with poor survival outcomes. Limited retrospective data supports the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to radical nephroureterectomy.
Published January 18, 2018
Clinical trials have shown that chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves survival compared to radiation therapy (RT) alone in muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We describe uptake of CRT and comparative effectiveness in routine practice.
Published January 19, 2018
To provide an overview of treatment modalities for management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).
In accordance with the standards for a scoping review, data presentation and discussion at the Consultation on UTUC in Stockholm, 6-7 September 2018, consensus was reached on the latest and most important treatment recommendations for UTUC.
Published May 30, 2019
Historical data demonstrated similar survival outcomes in patients with stage I nonseminoma germ-cell tumor of the testis (NSGCTT) subjected to either surveillance or active treatment (AT) after orchiectomy.
Published September 15, 2019
We tested contemporary surveillance and active treatment (AT) that included chemotherapy (CHT) and radiotherapy (RT) rates for stage I testicular seminoma patients, as well as cancer-specific mortality (CSM) and other-cause mortality (OCM) rates.
Published July 3, 2019
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) accounts for 5% of urothelial carcinomas (UCs), the estimated annual incidence being 1-2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. Similarly to bladder UC, divergent differentiations and histologic variants confer an adverse risk factor in comparison with pure UTUC.
Published April 2, 2019
Therapy for early stage testicular seminoma has changed radically over the past several decades. Given high cure rates and clinical trials supporting less active therapy in most cases, close observation after radical orchiectomy is now considered standard of care for clinical stage (CS) IA/IB seminoma, with either radiation therapy (RT) or chemotherapy salvage options possible.
Published February 19, 2020
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the standard-of-care (SOC) for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) since the middle of the twentieth century. Recently, several practice-changing trials have added new therapy options for these patients.
Published August 22, 2018
The International Germ Cell Consensus Classification (IGCCC) is the recommended stratification scheme for newly diagnosed metastatic seminoma (mSGCT) and non-seminoma germ cell tumor (mNSGCT) patients.
Published September 10, 2019
Multidisciplinary clinics integrate the expertise of several specialties to provide effective treatment to patients. This exposure is especially relevant in the management of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), which requires critical input from urology, radiation oncology, and medical oncology, among other supportive specialties.
Published January 1, 2018
Locally advanced muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) patients who are candidates for radical cystectomy (RC) should receive perioperative chemotherapy (CHT). However, the adherence to CHT guidelines is low.
Published February 15, 2019
Using complete information on total treatment burden, this population-based study aimed to investigate second cancer (SC) risk in testicular cancer survivors (TCS) treated in the cisplatin era. The Cancer Registry of Norway identified 5 625 1-year TCS diagnosed 1980-2009.
Published October 14, 2019
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has always been considered resistant to chemotherapy. IR-780 is a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye that can be efficiently taken up by RCC cells. Cabazitaxel is a cytotoxic drug that interferes with mitosis by acting on tubulin.
Published June 5, 2019
BCG is the gold standard agent used in high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) that is amenable to bladder sparing management. However, recent BCG shortages appear to be a chronic problem.
Published December 2, 2019
To determine the accurate age-adjusted incidence of prostate small cell carcinoma (SCC), update the clinical and pathological characteristics, as well as survival data of prostate SCC from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) datasets.
Published September 15, 2019
Treatment response biomarkers are urgently needed for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Baseline and post-treatment circulating tumor cell (CTC) counts of ≥5 cells/7.5ml are associated with poor CRPC outcome.
Published June 15, 2016
Adding chemotherapy to radical cystectomy (RC) may improve outcome. Neoadjuvant treatment is advocated by guidelines based on meta-analysis data but is severely underused in clinical practice. Adjuvant treatment of patients at risk could be an alternative.
Published September 21, 2015
We investigated whether the addition of an autologous dendritic cell-based cancer vaccine (DCvac) induces an immune response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with docetaxel.
Published March 3, 2017
Radical cystectomy (RC) is the standard of care treatment of localized muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC). However, about 50% of patients develop metastases within 2 years after cystectomy. Neoadjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy before cystectomy improves the overall survival (OS) in patients with muscle-invasive BC.
Published January 30, 2018
The treatment of poor prognosis chemotherapy naïve or relapsed testicular cancer is challenging. In poor prognosis treatment naïve disease, the outlook for patients with standard approaches utilising three weekly cisplatin based regimens, most commonly bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) is suboptimal, and one can expect more than half of patients to relapse or progress and need salvage treatment.
Published March 27, 2018
Intravesical instillation of antitumor agents following transurethral resection of bladder tumors is the standard strategy for the treatment of superficial bladder cancers. However, the efficacy of current intravesical instillation is limited partly due to the poor permeability of the urothelium.
Published November 1, 2017
Management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer has changed markedly over the last decade with major shifts in the treatment paradigm, although ultimately still will progress despite currently available therapies.
Published August 19, 2015
Median age for the diagnosis of metastatic bladder cancer (MBC) is 73 years. The feasibility of chemotherapy in older patients is controversial. Our objectives were to assess associations linking age to first line chemotherapy regimen selection, early chemotherapy discontinuation, and 1-year mortality in everyday practice.
Published October 17, 2016
The incidence rate of testicular cancer among young males is high. Co-administration of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) has increased survival rate of patients with testicular cancer. Although BEP is one of the most effective treatment for testicular cancer, but it severely affects the reproductive system that ultimately leads to infertility.
Published November 11, 2018
To investigate the characteristics and outcomes of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) treated with transurethral resection (TUR) plus chemotherapy alone in a large observational cohort reflecting the continuum of practice settings in the United States.
Published June 25, 2018