Increased nucleophosmin expression is a strong predictor of recurrence and prognosis in patients with N0M0 upper tract urothelial carcinoma undergoing radical nephroureterectomy

We aimed to evaluate whether increased nucleophosmin expression predicts recurrence and survival in upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC).

Specimens from 101 patients with N0M0 UTUC undergoing radical nephroureterectomy were evaluated. Nucleophosmin expression was determined immunohistochemically and categorized into two groups according to nucleophosmin staining intensity. The association between nucleophosmin expression and various clinicopathological factors including Ki-67 expression was analyzed. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify the independent predictors of extraurothelial recurrence and cancer-specific survival.

High nucleophosmin expression was significantly correlated with tumor location, pT ≥3, lymphovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, and high Ki-67 expression. Patients whose tumors demonstrated high nucleophosmin expression had a significantly higher rate of extraurothelial recurrence and a lower survival rate than those with low nucleophosmin expression. Multivariate analysis showed that pT ≥3, lymph node metastasis, high nucleophosmin expression, and high Ki-67 expression were independent predictors of extraurothelial recurrence. When patients were stratified into three groups according to the number of risk factors, the 2-year extraurothelial recurrence-free survival rates were 92.9% in patients with 0 or 1 risk factor, 76.5% in patients with 2 risk factors, and 9.1% in patients with 3 or 4 risk factors. Regarding cancer-specific survival, lymphovascular invasion and high nucleophosmin expression were independent predictors.

Increased nucleophosmin expression was a strong predictor of extraurothelial recurrence and cancer-specific survival in patients with N0M0 UTUC undergoing radical nephroureterectomy. Our risk stratification models integrating nucleophosmin expression may provide valuable information on disease recurrence and prognosis.

World journal of urology. 2016 Jan 24 [Epub ahead of print]

Harutake Sawazaki, Keiichi Ito, Takako Asano, Kenji Kuroda, Akinori Sato, Junichi Asakuma, Akio Horiguchi, Kenji Seguchi, Tomohiko Asano

Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan. ., Department of Urology, National Defense Medical College, 3-2 Namiki, Tokorozawa, Saitama, 359-8513, Japan.