Impact of Surgical Wait Time on Survival in Patients With Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma With Hydronephrosis.

Due to the inevitability of waiting time for surgery, this problem seems to have become more pronounced since the outbreak of COVID-19, and due to the high incidence of preoperative hydronephrosis in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients, it is particularly important to explore the impact of preoperative waiting time and hydronephrosis on upper urinary urothelial carcinoma.

316 patients with UTUC who underwent radical surgery at a high-volume center in China between January 2008 and December 2019 were included in this study. We retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data from the medical records, including age, sex, smoking history, ECOG performance status (ECOG PS), body mass index (BMI), tumor location and size, number of lesions, T stage, N stage, surgical approach and occurrence of hydronephrosis, lymph node invasion, lymph node dissection, surgical margin, tumor necrosis, infiltrative tumor architecture, lymphovascular invasion and concomitant bladder cancer. Surgical wait time was defined as the interval between initial imaging diagnosis and radical surgery of UTUC. Hydronephrosis was defined as abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces due to obstruction of the urinary system. Firstly, all patients were divided into short-wait (<31 days), intermediate-wait (31-90 days) and long-wait (>90 days) groups according to the surgical wait time. The clinicopathological characteristics of each group were evaluated and the survival was compared. For patients with hydronephrosis, we subsequently divided them into two groups: short-wait (≤60 days) and long-wait (>60 days) groups according to the surgical wait time. Univariate and multivariate COX regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic risk factor for patients with hydronephrosis.

A total of 316 patients with UTUC were included in this study with a median surgical wait time of 22 days (IQR 11-71 days). Of the 316 patients, 173 were classified into the short-wait group (54.7%), 69 into the intermediate-wait group (21.8%) and 74 into the long-wait group (23.5%). The median follow-up time for all patients was 43 months (IQR 28-67months). The median surgical wait times of the short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait group were12 days (IQR 8-17days), 42days (IQR 37-65days) and 191days (IQR 129-372days), respectively. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of all patients was 54.3%. The 5-year OS of short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait groups were 56.4%, 59.3% and 35.1%, respectively (P=0.045). The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) of short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait groups were 65.8%, 70.9% and 39.6%, respectively (P=0.032). In the subgroup analysis, we divided 158 UTUC patients with hydronephrosis into short-wait group (≤60 days) and long-wait group (> 60 days), 120 patients were included in the short-wait group and 38 patients in the long-wait group. The median surgical wait times of the short-wait and long-wait group were 14days (IQR 8-28days) and 174days (IQR 100-369days), respectively. The 5-year OS of long-wait group was significantly lower than the OS of short-wait group (44.2% vs. 55.1%, P =0.023). The 5-year CSS of long-wait and short-wait group were 49.1% and 61.7%, respectively (P=0.041). In multivariate Cox regression analysis of UTUC patients with hydronephrosis, surgical wait time, tumor grade, pathological T stage, and tumor size were independent risk factors for OS and CSS. Lymph node involvement was also a prognostic factor for CSS.

For patients with UTUC, the surgical wait time should be limited to less than 3 months. For UTUC patients with hydronephrosis, the OS and CSS of patients with surgical wait time of more than 60 days were relatively shorted than those of patients with surgical wait time of less than 60 days.

Frontiers in oncology. 2021 Jul 05*** epublish ***

Fangzheng Zhao, Nienie Qi, Chu Zhang, Ning Xue, Shuaishuai Li, Raorao Zhou, Zeyu Chen, Ruiqin Yao, Haitao Zhu

Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China., Department of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China., Department of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.