The aim of the study was to investigate differences in the stage at presentation and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) between rural area (RA) and urban area (UA) residence status in nonmetastatic upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients.
Newly diagnosed T1-3N0M0 UTUC patients with available residence status were abstracted from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (2004-2016). Propensity score (PS) matching (1 RA vs. 3 UA) accounted for age (interval ≤2 years), T stage (exact matching: T1, T2, and T3), and tumor grade (exact matching: high grade, low grade/unknown). Cumulative incidence plots and multivariable competing risk regression models focused on CSM, after adjustment for other-cause mortality.
Of 6,012 patients, 125 (2.1%) resided in RAs and 5,887 (97.9%) in UAs. RA patients were younger than UA patients (median age 72 vs. 75 years, p = 0.03). No differences were recorded in tumor location, T stage, tumor grade, or surgical treatment between RA and UA patients. After 1:3 PS matching, 125 RA patients and 375 UA patients were assessable. At 5 years of follow-up, CSM rates were 26.7 versus 15.7% according to RA versus UA, respectively. After additional multivariable adjustment for age, sex, tumor location, and surgical treatment, RA remained an independent predictor of higher CSM (hazard ratio 1.75, p = 0.02).
Despite no differences in cancer characteristics, UTUC patients in RA are at higher risk of CSM than their UA counterparts. This suggests suboptimal care delivery and compliance as possible causes. Complex and/or rare disease should be centralized to expert centers, which are often in UAs.
Urologia internationalis. 2021 Mar 12 [Epub ahead of print]
Claudia Collà Ruvolo, Lara F Stolzenbach, Luigi Nocera, Marina Deuker, Mike Wenzel, Zhe Tian, Roberto La Rocca, Massimiliano Creta, Marco Capece, Fred Saad, Shahrokh F Shariat, Derya Tilki, Alberto Briganti, Vincenzo Mirone, Pierre I Karakiewicz
Urology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy, ., Cancer Prognostics and Health Outcomes Unit, Division of Urology, University of Montréal Health Center, Montréal, Québec, Canada., Urology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive Sciences and Odontostomatology, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy., Department of Urology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria., Martini-Klinik Prostate Cancer Center, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany., Department of Urology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.