This study aims to identify predictive local recurrence risk factors and site-specific local recurrence pattern of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) with different primary tumor locations.
Three hundred and eighty-nine UTUC patients with radical nephroureterectomy were included in this study. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to measure the risk of local recurrence. We also mapped the position of local recurrence sites stratified by primary tumor locations.
A total of 73 patients (18.7%) developed local recurrence within a median follow-up of 41 months (range, 3-80 months). For patients with local recurrence, the median interval of local recurrence was 9 months. Ureter tumor, multifocality, T stage, G grade, lymph node metastasis (LNM), lymph node dissection (LND), and lymph vascular invasion (LVI) were all significantly associated with increased local recurrence by univariable analyses (P < 0.05). Only multifocality, T3-4, G3, and LNM remained independent predictors of increased local recurrence by multivariable analyses. Adjuvant radiotherapy could reduce the local recurrence (HR = 0.177; 95% CI 0.064-0.493, P = 0.001). Patients with local recurrence had poorer cancer-specific survival (4-year cancer-specific survival rate 36 ± 7.5% vs 88.4 ± 2.2%, P = 0.000). We evaluated local recurrence pattern stratified by tumor locations. Para-aortic lymph node region was the most common recurrence area for all the patients. Left-sided UTUC had more than 70% recurrent lymph nodes in the left para-aortic region (LPA). For right-sided UTUC patients, recurrent para-aortic lymph nodes distributed in the LPA (33.3%), aortocaval (AC) (41.5%), and right paracaval (RPC) (25.2%) regions. Recurrence in the internal and external iliac regions was only found in the distal ureter group (P < 0.05). Renal pelvic fossa recurrence was only found in renal pelvic tumor (22.2%, P = 0.007). The ureter tumor bed recurrence rate was higher for ureter patients (P = 0.001).
Multifocality, T3-4, G3, and LNM are predictors of higher local recurrence rate of UTUC. Adjuvant radiotherapy can reduce local recurrence rate. Local recurrence patterns are different according to primary tumor locations.
World journal of surgical oncology. 2020 May 30*** epublish ***
Xiaoying Li, Ming Cui, Xiaobin Gu, Dong Fang, Hongzhen Li, Shangbin Qin, Kunlin Yang, Tianzhao Zhu, Xuesong Li, Liqun Zhou, Xian-Shu Gao, Dian Wang
Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China., Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China., Department of Medical Imaging, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China., Department of Urology, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China. ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Peking University First Hospital, Peking University, Beijing, China. ., Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush University Medical Center , Chicago, USA.