Physical long-term side-effects in young adult cancer survivors: germ cell tumors model

After the important advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs) leading to high cure rates, physical long-term side-effects represent an important cause of death in these young adult survivors. Highlighting these physical long-term side-effects, their monitoring and their prevention modalities is necessary for a better management of these cancer survivors.

Impaired fertility, increased risk of developing a second cancer, cardiac, pulmonary, renal and neural toxicity, hearing and vision impairment are the major physical side-effects in young adult cancer survivors. Long-term cardiac toxicity, next to second malignancies, represents life-threatening conditions in testicular cancer survivors. The long-term nephrotoxity in testicular GCTs survivors is most frequently associated to the treatment either in those treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, mainly Bleomycine, Etoposide, Cisplatin, or those receiving infradiaphragmatic radiation therapy, whereas pulmonary toxicity is mainly attributed to bleomycin related toxicities.

There are no clear and comprehensive data concerning the monitoring and prevention of long-term side-effects in testicular cancer survivors. Physical activity and interventions in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyles may reduce the incidence of long-term side-effects in these cancer survivors.

Current opinion in oncology. 2017 Apr 29 [Epub ahead of print]

Hampig Raphael Kourie, Jean Klastersky

aOncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon bInstitut Jules Bordet, Centre des Tumeurs de l'Université Libre de Bruxelles, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium.