The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure, and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases, and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types, and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with non-drinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13, and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85), and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend=0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend=0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
International journal of cancer. 2016 Jul 30 [Epub ahead of print]
Mary L Biggs, David R Doody, Britton Trabert, Jacqueline R Starr, Chu Chen, Stephen M Schwartz
Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA., Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA., Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA., Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA., Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.