BACKGROUND:The etiology of testicular germ cell cancer (TGCC) is still poorly understood, but biological and epidemiological evidence suggest that TGCC originates early in life.
The aim of the present study was to analyze heterogeneity in TGCC risk within Norway, comparing county of birth to county of diagnosis, in order to assess the relative contribution of risk factors acting early and later in life. A further aim was to present the Norwegian TGCC incidence rates (1958-2007).
MATERIAL AND METHODS: All TGCC cases (n = 7130) reported to the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1958-2007, were analyzed by county of diagnosis in 10-year intervals. The relative risk of TGCC based on county of birth, was estimated by Poisson regression analysis of all new TGCC cases (n = 1943), based on the mother's county of residence at the time of the son's birth, 1967-2007, obtained by linkage between the Cancer Registry and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway.
RESULTS: Between the first (1958-67) and last (1998-2007) 10-year period, the average incidence rate more than tripled from 3.3 to 10.5 per 100 000 person-years (world adjusted), respectively. The average incidence rate during 1968-2007 was highest in the county of Rogaland (8.6) and lowest in Hedmark (5.3), the ratio between them being 1.6. The relative risk of TGCC based on county of birth (1967-2007) varied between 1.43 (Møre og Romsdal) and 0.95 (Buskerud), giving a ratio of 1.5.
CONCLUSIONS: The ratio between the relative risk in the highest and lowest county was basically similar when comparing counties of birth with counties of diagnosis. Thus, our data do not shed light on the relative contribution of risk factors acting early versus later in life. The incidence rate of TGCC in Norway is among the highest in the world, and the increase in incidence rate does not seem to level off.
Kvammen O, Tretli S, Johannessen TB, Klepp O, Grotmol T. Are you the author?
Department of Oncology, Ålesund Hospital, Helse Sunnmøre HF, Norway.
Reference: Acta Oncol. 2012 Feb;51(2):177-84.
UroToday.com Testicular Cancer Section