Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania, 16 Penn Tower, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
Testicular cancer is the most common solid tumor among men aged 15-35 years. The introduction of cisplatin-based chemotherapy has resulted in a cure rate of over 95% for men with testicular cancer, which has put increased emphasis on understanding the morbidity associated with chemotherapy. Hematological, gastrointestinal, gonadal, otological, renal, neurological, and pulmonary toxicities are the most common acute adverse effects. Although most patients recover, some of these effects can persist after the chemotherapy regimen has been completed and can become chronic problems. The late complications associated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy include secondary malignancies, cardiovascular disease, avascular necrosis, and cognitive impairment. Late complications can have considerable effects on survival and quality of life, so close monitoring of patients is critical for the early diagnosis of late adverse effects and to limit associated damage. All patients should adopt a healthy lifestyle and follow age-appropriate cancer screening programs. Hormonal supplementation should be considered for those with a low testosterone level, in order to reduce the risk of sexual dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. Prompt diagnosis of avascular necrosis is essential, and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis for any long-term testicular cancer survivor complaining of hip pain. Finally, sperm cryopreservation should be discussed with all patients before chemotherapy is initiated.
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Reference: Nat Rev Urol. 2011 Apr;8(4):213-22.