Testicular cancer is overall rare but comprises the most common solid malignancy diagnosed in young men aged ∼20-40 years. Most testicular neoplasms generally fall into two broad categories: germ cell tumors (GCTs; ∼95%) and sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs ∼5%). Given the relative rarity of these tumors, diagnostic biomarkers are highly relevant for their diagnosis. Over the past several decades, diagnostic biomarkers have improved dramatically through targeted immunohistochemical and molecular characterization. Despite these recent advances, most markers are not perfectly sensitive or entirely specific. Therefore, they need to be used in combination and interpreted in context. In this review we summarize tissue-based biomarkers relevant to the pathologist, with a focus on practical diagnostic issues that relate to testicular GCT and SCST.
Human pathology. 2022 Aug 03 [Epub ahead of print]
Stephanie E Siegmund, Rohit Mehra, Andres M Acosta
Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: ., Department of Pathology and Michigan Center for Translational Pathology, University of Michigan Hospital and Health Systems, 1500, East Medical Center Drive, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. Electronic address: ., Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address: .