Proximity to endocrine-disrupting pesticides and risk of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) among adolescents: A population-based case-control study in California.

The incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) is increasing steadily in the United States, particularly among Latinos. TGCT is thought to be initiated in utero and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, suspected contributors to TGCT pathogenesis, during this critical developmental period may contribute to the rise.

To assess the relationship between fetal exposure to agricultural endocrine-disrupting pesticides (EDPs) and TGCT risk among adolescents in a diverse population in California.

We conducted a registry-based case-control study of TGCT. Cases, diagnosed between 1997 and 2011, were 15-19 years of age (n = 381). Controls were matched on birth year and race/ethnicity (n = 762). Quantities (kilograms) of 33 pesticides applied within 3 km and 1 km radii of each individual's address before birth were estimated using the Pesticide Use Reporting database. Odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI), and population attributable risk (PAR) were calculated for each EDP (using log-2 transformed values). Risk models considered race/ethnicity, birth year, and neighborhood socioeconomic status.

A doubling of nearby acephate applications (3 km and 1 km radii) and malathion applications (1 km radius) was associated with increased risks of TGCT among Latinos only (OR = 1.09; 95% CI:1.01-1.17; 1.30; 95% CI:1.08-1.57, and 1.19; 95% CI:1.01-1.39, respectively), whereas application of carbaryl within a 3 km radius increased TGCT risk in non-Latinos only (OR = 1.14, 95% CI:1.01-1.28). We estimate that acephate was associated with approximately 10% of the TGCT PAR, malathion with 3% and carbaryl with 1%.

TGCT among adolescents in California was associated with prenatal residential proximity to acephate and malathion among Latinos, and with carbaryl among non-Latinos. These results suggest that the rise in TGCT risk among Latinos may be associated with exposure to these pesticides.

International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2021 Nov 25 [Epub ahead of print]

Scott J Swartz, Libby M Morimoto, Todd P Whitehead, Mindy C DeRouen, Xiaomei Ma, Rong Wang, Joseph L Wiemels, Katherine A McGlynn, Robert Gunier, Catherine Metayer

Joint Medical Program, University of California, Berkeley/San Francisco, Berkeley, CA, USA; School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA., Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA., Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA., Department of Chronic Disease Epidemiology, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT, USA., Center for Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA., Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA. Electronic address: .

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