The development of somatic-type malignancies (SMs) in testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) is a rare but well-recognized phenomenon. We studied the pathologic features of 63 GCTs with SMs in the testis (n=22) or metastases (n=41) and correlated these features with clinical outcomes. The patients with SMs in the testis (median age, 26 y) were younger than those with metastatic SMs (median age, 38.5 y). The SMs consisted of carcinomas (n=21), sarcomas (n=21), primitive neuroectodermal tumors (n=15), nephroblastomas (n=3), and mixed tumors (n=3). Sarcoma was the most common SM in the testis (n=11), and most sarcomas were rhabdomyosarcomas (n=9). Carcinoma was the most common SM in metastases (n=20), and most carcinomas were adenocarcinomas (n=12). In metastases, carcinomatous SMs developed after a longer interval from the initial orchiectomy (median times, 213 mo) than sarcomatous SMs (median times, 68 mo). Patients with metastatic SMs had significantly poorer overall survival than those with SMs in the testis (5-y survival rate, 35% vs. 87%; P=0.011). Furthermore, patients with carcinomatous SMs had a significantly worse prognosis than those with sarcomatous or primitive neuroectodermal tumor SMs (5-y survival rates, 17%, 77%, and 73%, respectively; P=0.002), when the whole cohort, including testicular and metastatic SMs, were analyzed. Our results demonstrate that SMs in metastatic GCTs are associated with a significantly worse prognosis than those in the testis. Furthermore, the histologic subtype of SM has a significant effect on the clinical outcome, with the carcinomatous SM carrying the highest risk for mortality.
The American journal of surgical pathology. 2021 Aug 02 [Epub ahead of print]
Michael J Hwang, Ameer Hamza, Miao Zhang, Shi-Ming Tu, Louis L Pisters, Bogdan Czerniak, Charles C Guo
Departments of Pathology Genitourinary Medical Oncology Urology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.