Testicular tumor markers in the spermatic vein - correlation to pathology, stage and outcome.

To report our findings in patients with determination of testicular tumor markers from the vena spermatica during inguinal orchiectomy.

In a retrospective setting, data of patients who underwent inguinal orchiectomy between January 2004 and December 2014 were analyzed. Cubital and testicular vein tumor markers were assessed and correlated to histology, clinical stage and outcome.

A total of 90 patients (seminomatous: n=53, non-seminomatous: n=37) with a median age of 37 years were included. The mean follow-up was 109 months. Overall, 60% (n=54) of patients had one or more positive tumor marker level in the cubital vein versus 88.9% (n=80) in the testicular vein. Median tumor marker levels of hCGβ in cubital and testicular vein were 1.9U/l and 30.8U/l; the respective values for AFP were 2.9ng/ml and 2.4ng/ml and for hPLAP 49.9mU/l and 418.9mU/l. Differences in cubital vs. testicular vein positivity were stage dependant and highest for pT1. Patients with seminomatous tumors had peripheral positivity of 59.3% versus 88.9% in the testicular vein (p=0.003); in non-seminomatous patients the respective values were 61.1% and 88.9% (p=0.02). All recurrent cancer patients under active surveillance (n=5) were positive in the testicular vein.

Virtually all testicular cancers shed tumor markers in the circulation. Differences in marker positivity (testicular versus testicular vein) were stage dependent (greatest in pT1), largely independent of histology and highest for hCGβ. The prognostic value of testicular vein sampling remains speculative.

Urology. 2021 Apr 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Andreas Banner, Michael Lotterstätter, Stephan Madersbacher, Ingrid Schauer

Department of Urology, Klinik Favoriten, Vienna, AUSTRIA., Department of Urology, Klinik Favoriten, Vienna, AUSTRIA; Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna, AUSTRIA., Department of Urology, Klinik Favoriten, Vienna, AUSTRIA. Electronic address: .