Purpose: Testicular cancer (TC) is the most prevalent tumor diagnosed in men 15-40 years of age. Survivorship and quality of life dramatically decrease with late-stage diagnosis. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is a diagnostic method used to discover early-stage tumor incidence. This study examines the relationship between practicing TSE and stage of diagnosis for TC survivors. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was employed, a 40-item survey among TC survivors (n = 619). Bivariate analyses consisted of Spearman Rho correlations of all primary variables with stage diagnosis of TC. Multivariate analysis employed an ordered logistic regression to determine stage diagnosis predictors. Results: "Regular" TSE practice significantly related with awareness (r = 0.4533) and knowledge of (r = 0.4866) TSE, confidence performing TSE (r = 0.4961), and feeling shape/feel differences of the testicle before diagnosis (r = 0.2115). Factors that had a statistically significant negative association with later-stage diagnosis included awareness (r = -0.1180) and knowledge of (r = -0.1586) TSE, confidence performing TSE (r = -0.1138), and feeling shape/feel differences of the testicle before diagnosis (r = -0.2938), among others. Regular TSE practice significantly predicted decreased odds of later-stage diagnosis within the sample subset reporting delay (odds ratio = 0.1628; p < 0.05); however, there was no significant relationship between regular TSE practice and stage diagnosis within the other model variations. Conclusion: This exploratory analysis aimed to provide baseline evidence of the possible association between the practice of TSE and the stage of TC diagnosis, and therefore making an indirect claim that TSE has the potential to improve quality of life and decrease TC mortality, particularly among adolescents and young adults.
Journal of adolescent and young adult oncology. 2021 Apr 20 [Epub ahead of print]
Michael J Rovito, Wesley B Adams, Mike Craycraft, Chayna Gooljar, Michael Maresca, Janet Guelmes, Alexa Gallelli
Department of Health Sciences, Testicular Cancer Research Collaborative, College of Health Professions and Sciences, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA., Testicular Cancer Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.