Seminomatous (SGCT) and non-seminomatous (NSGCT) germ cell tumors (GCT) are rare but their incidence are increasing. We will discuss different therapeutic strategies in relapse disease: patients with stage I germ cell tumor have an excellent prognosis with a cure rate approaching 98-99 %, whatever the histology and the chosen treatment (surveillance strategy or adjuvant treatment). Relapses are observed among 20% of patients with stage I SGCT or low risk NSGCT and 50 % of patients with high risk NSGCT. Patients are treated according to the international prognosis group (IGCCCG) for SGCT and low risk NSGCT, naïve of chemotherapy. After an adjuvant treatment, the protocol must be adapted to the number of previous cycles (1 or 2 BEP) and to the prognosis group. Five to 50% of patients relapse after a first line of metastatic chemotherapy according to initial prognosis group. Dose-dense chemotherapy according to the GETUG13 protocol reduces the risk of relapse for the patients with poor-risk group NSGCT and unfavorable tumor marker decline. The prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory GCT after a first line is more negative since only half of them will be cured by salvage standard chemotherapy. An international therapeutic trial (TIGER) is ongoing in first line salvage treatment evaluating high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Finally, developing biomarkers for predicting clinical relapse, the management in expert centers of these patients and participation in therapeutic innovation are important perspectives for a better understanding and treatment of these patients with a poorer prognosis.
Bulletin du cancer. 2020 Jul 08 [Epub ahead of print]
Mélodie Carbonnaux, Armelle Vinceneux, Patrice Peyrat, Aude Fléchon
Département d'oncologie médicale, centre Léon-Bérard, 28, rue Laennec, 69337 Lyon cedex 08, France. Electronic address: ., Département d'oncologie médicale, centre Léon-Bérard, 28, rue Laennec, 69337 Lyon cedex 08, France., Département de chirurgie, centre Léon-Bérard, 28, rue Laennec, 69337 Lyon cedex 08, France.