Epigenetic alterations as therapeutic targets in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: current and future application of "epidrugs".

Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are heterogeneous neoplasms mostly affecting young-adult men. Despite high survival rates, some patients with disseminated disease acquire cisplatin resistance, entailing the need for less toxic therapies. Epigenetic alterations constitute an important feature of TGCTs, which are also implicated in resistance mechanism(s). These alterations might be used as potential targets to design epigenetic drugs. To date, several compounds have been explored and evaluated regarding therapeutic efficacy, making use of pre-clinical studies with in vitro and in vivo models, and some have already been explored in clinical trials. This review summarizes the several epigenetic mechanisms at play in these neoplasms, the current challenges in the field of TGCTs and critically reviews available data on "epidrugs" in those tumors.

Epigenetics. 2020 Aug 04 [Epub ahead of print]

Ana Rita Cardoso, João Lobo, Vera Miranda-Gonçalves, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo

Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, IPO Porto Research Center (GEBC CI-IPOP), Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (IPO Porto) & Porto Comprehensive Cancer Center (P.CCC) , R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072, Porto, Portugal.