To examine incidence and survival of testicular cancer in New Mexico, overall and separately for border and non-border counties.
Incidence and 5-year survival rates for testicular cancer were obtained from the SEER18 database using the SEER*Stat program following established NCI protocols. Incidence data were compared using Student's t-test. Age-adjusted 5-year survival and Kaplan-Meier method were used to estimate survival. Log-rank tests were used to compare survival for New Mexico to the remaining17 geographical areas of the SEER 18 and for the New Mexico border counties to the New Mexico non-border counties. Odds ratios were used to compare testicular stage at diagnosis. Cox proportional hazards regression was performed to account for race/ethnicity, and border status.
From 2000-2015, New Mexico had a testicular cancer incidence rate of 6.3 per 100,000 people, significantly higher than SEER18 (P<.001). The 5-year survival rate in New Mexico did not differ significantly from the SEER18 (P=.3). Border Hispanics had a lower survival rate than border non-Hispanic populations (P=.03). From 2000-2018, New Mexico had a significantly higher proportion of distant cancers than the SEER18 (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.53, P=.005).
The higher incidence of testicular cancer in New Mexico does not appear to have a clear explanation based on the current understanding of risk factors; however, the increased incidence in New Mexico does not appear to be associated with increased mortality. The higher proportion of advanced testicular cancers in New Mexico may represent a delay in diagnosis. The increased mortality rate seen in Hispanic border populations may be due in part to barriers to care.
Ethnicity & disease. 2020 Apr 23*** epublish ***
Zachariah D Taylor, Elizabeth McLeod, Charlotte C Gard, Michael E Woods
College of Medicine, Burrell College of Osteopathic Medicine, Las Cruces, NM., Department of Economics, Applied Statistics, and International Business, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.