Staging of testicular germ cell tumours is essential for treatment planning and prognosis. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is one key parameter that establishes pT2 in pathologic staging and Prognostic Stage Group IB for both seminoma and mixed germ cell tumours otherwise limited to the testis . While current practice guidelines  consider surveillance preferred for Stage I pure seminomas given the high rate of cure by orchiectomy alone, single agent carboplatin or radiotherapy remain considerations. For mixed germ cell tumours, LVI is considered a risk factor, raising consideration of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection or multiagent adjuvant chemotherapy . Thus, LVI assessment and reporting has been emphasized, including consideration of immunohistochemical (IHC) markers as adjuncts .
Histopathology. 2020 May 01 [Epub ahead of print]
Amanda Lynn Gohlke, Mahul B Amin, Steven Christopher Smith
Department of Pathology, VCU School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, 23226, USA., Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center, Memphis, TN, USA.