Testicular germ cell tumors are chemosensitive with very high cure-rates even in the metastatic setting. However, patients with platinum-refractory and relapsing tumors after autologous stem cell transplant have very poor outcomes despite salvage treatments, and with no effective alternative therapies. Immunotherapy, notably with PD-1 inhibitors, has proven to be very effective in treating various solid tumors. This review summarizes the experience with anti-PD-1 agents (pembrolizumab, nivolumab) in the treatment of testicular germ cell tumor relapsing after multiple lines of treatment, and exposes future trials evaluating newer checkpoint inhibitors in this setting.
Future oncology (London, England). 2019 Jan 09 [Epub]
Albert Semaan, Fady Gh Haddad, Roland Eid, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Elie Nemr
Urology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon., Hematology-Oncology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon.