The Role of DNA/Histone Modifying Enzymes and Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Testicular Germ Cell Tumors.

It is well established that cancer cells exhibit alterations in chromatin structure and accessibility. Indeed, the dysregulation of many protein-coding players with enzymatic activity (DNA and histone-modifying enzymes) and chromatin remodelers have been depicted in various tumor models in recent years.

Still, little attention has been directed towards testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs)-representing the most common neoplasm among young adult Caucasian men-with most studies focusing on exploring the role of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and DNA demethylases (TETs). TGCTs represent a complex tumor model, associated with developmental and embryogenesis-related phenomena, and display seldom (cyto)genetic aberrations, leaving room for Epigenetics to explain such morphological and clinical diversity. Herein, we have summarized the major findings that were reported in literature regarding the dysregulation of DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers in TGCTs. Additionally, we performed in silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas database to find the most relevant of those players in TGCTs. We concluded that several DNA/histone-modifying enzymes and chromatin remodelers may serve as biomarkers for subtyping, dictating prognosis and survival, and, possibly, for serving as targets of directed, less toxic therapies.

Cancers. 2018 Dec 20*** epublish ***

João Lobo, Rui Henrique, Carmen Jerónimo

Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, Research Center of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (GEBC CI-IPOP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. ., Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, Research Center of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (GEBC CI-IPOP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. ., Cancer Biology and Epigenetics Group, Research Center of Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto (GEBC CI-IPOP), R. Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. .

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