Fertility preservation in testicular cancer - predictors of spermatogenesis

To determine the frequency of spermatogenesis in patients with testicular cancer and to assess for any predictors of spermatogenesis.

We retrospectively reviewed 103 testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) in men who underwent radical orchidectomy conducted at Guy's Hospital, London, between 2011 and 2015. Primary outcome measures included: the presence and characteristics of spermatogenesis (widespread/focal/proximity to tumour). Secondary outcome measures included: the presence of testicular microlithiasis, tumour characteristics (size, stage, and type), and tumour markers. Secondary outcome measures as potential predictors of spermatogenesis were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses.

Spermatogenesis was present in 70% (72/103) of the patients; it was widespread in 63% (45/72) and focal in 38% (27/72). Neither tumour type, stage, presence of microcalcification nor tumour markers predicted spermatogenesis. Men with a percentage testis tumour occupation (PTTO) of >50% of their testis were 82% (95% confidence interval 73.2-98.4) less likely to have spermatogenesis than a PTTO of <50%.

Spermatogenesis is present in most testes affected by TGCTs; it is widespread in two-thirds of patients, and located away from the tumour in 94%. These findings can help predict and guide successful surgical sperm retrieval in testes with TGCTs. The finding of focal spermatogenesis in a third of patients would support a microsurgical approach to sperm retrieval at the time of orchidectomy to maximise success.

BJU international. 2018 Apr 17 [Epub ahead of print]

Jemma A Moody, Kamran Ahmed, Catherine Horsfield, Malene R V Pedersen, Tet Yap, Majid Shabbir

GKT School of Medical Education, King's College London, London, UK., Department of Histopathology, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK., Department of Radiology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark., Department of Urology, Guy's Hospital, London, UK.