Should we rely on Doppler ultrasound for evaluation of testicular solid lesions?

Colour Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) is the main radiologic tool to evaluate scrotal masses and intratesticular-vascularised solid lesions are mostly considered malign lesions. Objective of this trial is determine ratio of benign lesions in patients with hypervascularised solid intratesticular lesions.

Patients who underwent radical orchiectomy due to hypervascularised intratesticular solid lesions detected in CDUS are evaluated retrospectively. Those with previous testicular cancer history and inguinal/scrotal surgeries were excluded from the study. All patients are evaluated for age, preoperative testicular atrophy, multicentricity, echotexture and size of solid lesions, preoperative tumor markers (AFP, bHCG and LDH), and postoperative pathology results. Two tailed p value test was used to evaluate numeric parameters and Fisher's exact test was used to evaluate non-numeric parameters.

A total of 117 patients with a mean age of 35.9 (5-86) were included to the study. Mean size of solid lesions was 4.39 cm. Seven patients had subcentimeter (subcm) lesions. 101 patients had hypoechoic, ten patients had isoechoic and six patients hyperechoic solid lesions. Preoperatively 60 patients (51.2%) had at least one tumor marker elevated. Postoperative pathology examination resulted to; 21 patients (17.9%) had benign lesions. Elevation of tumor markers, palpability, hypoechoic texture and larger size of the solid lesion were found to be parameters that predict malignancy.

Benign incidence of vascular testicular solid lesions detected with scrotal ultrasound with colour Doppler is greater than expected. In patients with smaller, non-palpable lesions without elevated tumor markers, treatment options other than radical orchiectomy such as testicular sparing surgery should be considered.

World journal of urology. 2018 Mar 23 [Epub ahead of print]

Baris Esen, Muhiddin Önder Yaman, Sümer Baltacı

Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. ., Department of Urology, Medical Faculty, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.