For numerous years, the non-cardiovascular role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) was underestimated, but recent studies have advanced the understanding of its function in various processes, including carcinogenesis. Numerous evidence comes from preclinical and clinical studies on the use of antihypertensive agents targeting the RAS, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers. It has been demonstrated that the use of ACEIs can alter the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and may have a positive effect by prolonging patient survival. It has an effect on the complex action of ACEI, resulting in decreased angiotensin II (Ang-II) production and altered levels of bradykinin or Ang 1-7. The present review discusses the existing knowledge on the effects of ACE and its inhibitors on RCC cell lines, xenograft models, and patient survival in clinical studies. A brief introduction to molecular pathways aids in understanding the non-cardiovascular effects of RAS inhibitors and enables the conduction of studies on combined cancer treatment with the application of ACEIs. Recent evidence regarding the treatment of hypertension associated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, one of the most pronounced and common side effects in modern RCC treatment, are also outlined. Captopril, an ACEI, may be used to lower blood pressure in patients, particularly due to its additional renoprotective actions.
Oncology letters. 2017 Aug 25 [Epub]
Paweł Sobczuk, Cezary Szczylik, Camillo Porta, Anna M Czarnecka
Department of Oncology, Military Institute of Medicine, 04-141 Warsaw, Poland., Medical Oncology, I.R.C.C.S. San Matteo University Hospital Foundation, I-27100 Pavia, Italy.