Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Over the past 12 years, medical treatment for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has transitioned from a nonspecific immune approach (in the cytokine era), to targeted therapy against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and now to novel immunotherapy agents. Multiple agents-including molecules against vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and related receptors; inhibitors of other targets, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin and the MET and AXL tyrosine-protein kinase receptors; and an immune-checkpoint inhibitor-have been approved based on significant activity in patients with advanced RCC. Despite these advances, important questions remain regarding biomarkers of efficacy, patient selection, and the optimal combination and sequencing of agents. The purpose of this review is to summarize present management and future directions in the treatment of metastatic RCC. CA Cancer J Clin 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
CA: a cancer journal for clinicians. 2017 Sep 29 [Epub ahead of print]
Pedro C Barata, Brian I Rini
Experimental Therapeutics Fellow, Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH., Professor of Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine; and Leader, Genitourinary Program, Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, OH.