Nivolumab (Opdivo, Bristol Meyer Squibb, New York, NY) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck, Kenilworth, NJ) are the first two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved monoclonal antibodies targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1). Nivolumab and pembrolizumab work by interfering with the interaction between PD-1 and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), whose unimpeded interaction downregulates T cells allowing cancer cells to evade immune surveillance. These drugs have earned a series of FDA approvals for melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), urothelial cancer, classical Hodgkin lymphoma, and renal cell cancer. In this review we will summarize the data for efficacy and toxicity for these two agents. We conclude that they represent two valuable but interchangeable alternatives to target their approved indications. We will discuss how this can help global payers seeking to contain the cost of cancer therapeutics that continues to spiral out of control.
Seminars in oncology. 2017 Jul 13 [Epub]
Vinay Prasad, Victoria Kaestner
Division of Hematology Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR; Senior Scholar in the Center for Health Care Ethics, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address: ., Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR. Electronic address: .