The risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in individuals who regularly drink coffee is controversial. Several antioxidant compounds in coffee have been proposed to reduce the risk of RCC, while the findings from several studies raise concerns regarding a potential increased risk of RCC with coffee consumption. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and RCC.
A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception until December 2016. Studies that reported odd ratios or hazard ratios comparing the risk of RCC in individuals who consumed a significant amount of coffee (at least 1 cup of coffee per day) versus those who did not consume coffee were included. Pooled risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were computed using a random-effect, generic inverse variance method.
Twenty-two observational studies (sixteen case-control and six cohort studies) were included in our analysis to assess the association between RCC and coffee consumption. The pooled RR of RCC in individuals consuming coffee was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.89-1.11). Subgroup analyses stratified by sex showed the pooled RRs of RCC of 1.15 (95% CI, 0.85-1.55) in females and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.72-1.04) in males, respectively.
Our study demonstrates no significant association between coffee consumption and RCC. Thus, coffee consumption is likely not a risk factor for RCC. Whether coffee consumption has a potential role in reduced risk of RCC, particularly in males requires further investigations.
Internal medicine journal. 2017 Sep 11 [Epub ahead of print]
Karn Wijarnpreecha, Charat Thongprayoon, Natanong Thamcharoen, Panadeekarn Panjawatanan, Wisit Cheungpasitporn
Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, NY, USA., Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand., Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.