Despite the rapid development of therapeutic modalities for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) over the past decade to include a number of targeted antiangiogenic therapies and traditional immunotherapy, such as high-dose interleukin-2 and interferon-α, mRCC continues to be associated with poor prognosis. Currently, several novel immunotherapy agents, such as cancer vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, and checkpoint inhibitors, such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 present on T cells), one of its ligands (PD-L1 present on antigen-presenting cells and tumor cells), and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein-4 pathways, are being studied in mRCC and are showing promise as important steps in the management of this disease. This review summarizes the current landscape of standard and emerging immune therapeutics and other modalities for mRCC.
Investigative and clinical urology. 2017 Jun 20 [Epub]
Yang Hyun Cho, Myung Soo Kim, Ho Seok Chung, Eu Chang Hwang
Department of Urology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.