Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and molecules inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin are being used for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); however, there is still a potential for improvement. Immune checkpoint inhibitors like nivolumab and other PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors provide an alternative approach for patients with mRCC. In this article, the authors review the safety profile and outcomes of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials of nivolumab in mRCC.
Drug design, development and therapy. 2017 Apr 11*** epublish ***
Vyshak Alva Venur, Monika Joshi, Kenneth G Nepple, Yousef Zakharia
Division of Hematology Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA., Division of Hematology-Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, PA., Department of Urology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.