Spotlight on nivolumab in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma: design, development, and place in therapy

Several tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors and molecules inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin are being used for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC); however, there is still a potential for improvement. Immune checkpoint inhibitors like nivolumab and other PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors provide an alternative approach for patients with mRCC. In this article, the authors review the safety profile and outcomes of phase 1, 2, and 3 clinical trials of nivolumab in mRCC.

Drug design, development and therapy. 2017 Apr 11*** epublish ***

Vyshak Alva Venur, Monika Joshi, Kenneth G Nepple, Yousef Zakharia

Division of Hematology Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplant, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA., Division of Hematology-Oncology, Penn State Cancer Institute, Hershey, PA., Department of Urology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, USA.