Renal cell cancer (RCC) is the major type of kidney cancer with increasing incidence. Obesity is one of the well-established risk factors for RCC. Meta-analyses including multiple cohort and case-control studies have found a consistent positive association between obesity and RCC. The association appeared to be independent of other RCC risk factors including hypertension and has been often stronger in women, although a positive association has also been observed in men. Obesity has been largely measured as body mass index (BMI). Studies which evaluated other measures of obesity including waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) as well as increase in weight have reported similar positive associations with RCC. Although the mechanisms by which obesity influences renal carcinogenesis have been under-explored, insulin resistance and certain growth factors including insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), sex steroid hormones, and biochemical markers such as adiponectin may be involved. The positive association with obesity has been observed with the clear cell type of RCC, which is the major histological subtype. On the other hand, the association between obesity and RCC survival appears to be much more complex. An apparent inverse association between obesity at time of diagnosis and RCC survival has been observed in some studies' generating speculation of an "obesity paradox" hypothesis. However, this "paradox" may be due to reverse causation, selection bias, or other forms of bias rather than a true biological association.
Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progres dans les recherches sur le cancer. 2016 Jan [Epub]
Kathryn M Wilson, Eunyoung Cho
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA., Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. .