Genomic Biomarkers of a Randomized Trial Comparing First-line Everolimus and Sunitinib in Patients with Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients are commonly treated with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. Correlations between somatic mutations and first-line targeted therapy outcomes have not been reported on a randomized trial.

To evaluate the relationship between tumor mutations and treatment outcomes in RECORD-3, a randomized trial comparing first-line everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) followed by sunitinib (VEGF inhibitor) at progression with the opposite sequence in 471 metastatic RCC patients.

Targeted sequencing of 341 cancer genes at ∼540× coverage was performed on available tumor samples from 258 patients; 220 with clear cell histology (ccRCC).

Associations between somatic mutations and median first-line progression free survival (PFS1L) and overall survival were determined in metastatic ccRCC using Cox proportional hazards models and log-rank tests.

Prevalent mutations (≥ 10%) were VHL (75%), PBRM1 (46%), SETD2 (30%), BAP1 (19%), KDM5C (15%), and PTEN (12%). With first-line everolimus, PBRM1 and BAP1 mutations were associated with longer (median [95% confidence interval {CI}] 12.8 [8.1, 18.4] vs 5.5 [3.1, 8.4] mo) and shorter (median [95% CI] 4.9 [2.9, 8.1] vs 10.5 [7.3, 12.9] mo) PFS1L, respectively. With first-line sunitinib, KDM5C mutations were associated with longer PFS1L (median [95% CI] of 20.6 [12.4, 27.3] vs 8.3 [7.8, 11.0] mo). Molecular subgroups of metastatic ccRCC based on PBRM1, BAP1, and KDM5C mutations could have predictive values for patients treated with VEGF or mTOR inhibitors. Most tumor DNA was obtained from primary nephrectomy samples (94%), which could impact correlation statistics.

PBRM1, BAP1, and KDM5C mutations impact outcomes of targeted therapies in metastatic ccRCC patients.

Large-scale genomic kidney cancer studies reported novel mutations and heterogeneous features among individual tumors, which could contribute to varied clinical outcomes. We demonstrated correlations between somatic mutations and treatment outcomes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, supporting the value of genomic classification in prospective studies.

European urology. 2016 Oct 14 [Epub ahead of print]

James J Hsieh, David Chen, Patricia I Wang, Mahtab Marker, Almedina Redzematovic, Ying-Bei Chen, S Duygu Selcuklu, Nils Weinhold, Nancy Bouvier, Kety H Huberman, Umesh Bhanot, Michael S Chevinsky, Parul Patel, Patrizia Pinciroli, Helen H Won, Daoqi You, Agnes Viale, William Lee, A Ari Hakimi, Michael F Berger, Nicholas D Socci, Emily H Cheng, Jennifer Knox, Martin H Voss, Maurizio Voi, Robert J Motzer

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: ., Novartis Oncology, East Hanover, NJ, USA., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Barnes Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, USA., Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA; Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan, Italy., Princess Margaret Cancer Center, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

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